facts

This page is here for you to get an over-view of some powerful and important aspects of why there is growing movement towards plant-based eating and vegan living, presented in short reference-based facts, so you can get a clear understanding relatively quickly.

These are provided under the main headings of environment, animal welfare and health simply to make easier for you to navigate.

To learn more and go further down the rabbit hole, please get a cup of tea, or something stronger, and browse through the blogs.

xxx


GREENHOUSE GASES

Animal agriculture is responsible for 18 percent of greenhouse gas emissions, more than the combined exhaust from all transportation.   [i]

"Livestock's Long Shadow: environmental issues and options". Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Rome 2006

Transportation exhaust is responsible for 13% of all greenhouse gas emissions.  [.i]

Greenhouse gas emissions from this sector primarily involve fossil fuels burned for road, rail, air, and marine transportation.

"Livestock's Long Shadow: environmental issues and options". Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Rome 2006

Environmental Protection Agency. "Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions Data". 

Livestock and their byproducts account for at least 32,000 million tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) per year, or 51% of all worldwide greenhouse gas emissions.

Goodland, R Anhang, J. “Livestock and Climate Change: What if the key actors in climate change were pigs, chickens and cows?”

Goodland, Robert & Anhang, Jeff. "Livestock and Climate Change: What if the key actors in climate change are...cows, pigs and chickens?". WorldWatch. November/December 2009

Hickman, Martin. "Study claims meat creates half of all greenhouse gases". Independent. November 2009

Hyner, Christopher. "A Leading Cause of Everything: One Industry That Is Destroying Our Planet and Our Ability to Thrive on It". Georgetown Environmental Law Review. October 23, 2015. 

Methane is 25-100 times more destructive than CO2 on a 20 year time frame.

Shindell, Drew T, et al. "Improved Attribution of Climate Forcing to Emissions". Science. 326, 716 (2009)

Vaidyanathan, Sayathri. "How Bad of a Greenhouse Gas is Methane? The global warming potential of the gaseous fossil fuel may be consistently underestimated". Scientific American. December 22, 2015.

"IPCC Fourth Assessment Report: Climate Change 2007. 2.10.2 Direct Global Warming Potential". Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 

Methane has a global warming potential 86 times that of CO2 on a 20 year time frame. 

Shindell, Drew T, et al. "Improved Attribution of Climate Forcing to Emissions". Science. 326, 716 (2009)

"IPCC Fourth Assessment Report: Climate Change 2007. 2.10.2. Direct Global Warming Potentials". Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 

 

Livestock is responsible for 65% of all human-related emissions of nitrous oxide – a greenhouse gas with 296 times the global warming potential of carbon dioxide, and which stays in the atmosphere for 150 years.

"Livestock' Long Shadow: environmental issues and options". FAO. Rome. 2006

"Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States". U.S. Energy Information Administration. March 31, 2011

 

Emissions for agriculture projected to increase 80% by 2050.

Tilman, David & Clark, Michael. "Global diets link environmental sustainability and human health". Nature. Vol. 515. 27 November 2014

Energy related emissions expected to increase 20% by 2040.

"Carbon Dioxide Emissions to 2040". Energy Global. 06 January 2015

"World Energy Outlook 2014 Factsheet". International Energy Agency. 

"International Energy Outlook 2016". U.S. Energy Information. May 11, 2016

 

US Methane emissions from livestock and natural gas are nearly equal.

"Overview of Greenhouse Gases". United States Environmental Protection Agency.

"Key facts and findings. By the numbers: GHG emissions by livestock". FAO. 

"Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks 1990-2015". United States Environmental Protection Agency 

 

Cows produce 150 billion gallons of methane per day.   [xi]

Ross, Phillip. "Cow Farts Have 'Larger Greenhouse Gas Impact' Than Previously Thought; Methane Pushes Climate Change". International Business Times. 26 November, 2013

250-500 liters per cow per day, x 1.5 billion cows globally is 99 - 198.1 billion gallons. Rough average of 150 billion gallons CH4 globally per day.

Miller, Scot M, et al. "Anthropegnic emissions of methane in the United States". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Vol. 110. No. 50. 18 October 2013 

Converting to wind and solar power will take 20+ years and roughly 43 trillion dollars. 

"Infographic: How Much it Would Cost for the Entire Planet to Switch to Renewable Energy". Inhabitat. 24 September, 2013

Evans-Pritchard, Ambrose. "Paris climate deal to ignite a $90 trillion energy revolution". The Telegraph. 28 October, 2015

 

Even without fossil fuels, we will exceed our 565 gigatonnes CO2e limit by 2030, all from raising animals.

Oppenlander, Richard A. Food Choice and Sustainability: Why Buying Local, Eating Less Meat, and Taking Baby Steps Won’t Work. . Minneapolis, MN : Langdon Street, 2013. Print.

Source: calculation is based on http://www.worldwatch.org/node/6294 analyses that 51% of GHG are attributed to animal ag.

Reducing methane emissions would create tangible benefits almost immediately.

"Industry Leaders, including Energy Companies, Forge Partnerships to Advance Climate Solutions and Reduce Short-Lived Climate Pollutants". Climate Summit 2014.

 

WATER

Fracking (hydraulic fracturing) water use ranges from 70-140 billion gallons annually. 

"Draft Plan to Study the Potential Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing on Drinking Water Resources". EPA. February 2011

Geetanjali, Chauhan, et al. "Hydraulic Fracturing for Oil and Gas and its Environmental Impacts". Research Journal of Recent Sciences. Vol. 4 (ISC-2014), 1-7 (2015) 

 

Animal agriculture water consumption ranges from 34-76 trillion gallons annually.   [ii]  [xv] 

"Summary of Estimated Water Use in the United States in 2005". United States Geological Service

Pimentel, David, et al. "Water Resources: Agricultural and Environmental Issues". BioScience. (2004) 54 (10): 909-918

Agriculture is responsible for 80-90% of US water consumption.   [xv] 

"How Important is Irrigation to U.S. Agriculture?" USDA: Economic Research Service. 12 October, 2016

 

Growing feed crops for livestock consumes 56% of water in the US.   [xv]

 Jacobson, Michael F. “Six Arguments For a Greener Diet: How a More Plant-based Diet Could Save Your Health and the Environment. Chapter 4: More and Cleaner Water”. Washington, DC: Center for Science in the Public Interest, 2006.

 

Californians use 1500 gallons of water per person per day. Close to Half is associated with meat and dairy products.

Fulton, Julian, et al. "California's Water Footprint". Pacific Institute. December 2012

2,500 gallons of water are needed to produce 1 pound of beef.  

(NOTE. The amount of water used to produce 1lb. of beef vary greatly from 442 - 8000 gallons. We choose to use in the film the widely cited conservative number of 2500 gallons per pound of US beef from Dr. George Borgstrom, Chairman of Food Science and Human Nutrition Dept of College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Michigan State University, "Impacts on Demand for and Quality of land and Water." ) 

Robbins, John. "2,500 gallons all wet?" Earth Save: Healthy People Healthy Planet.

Pimentel, David, et al. "Water Resources: Agricultural and Environmental Issues". BioScience (2004) 54 (10): 909-918.   

"Water Content of Things: Data Table 19". The World's Water 2008-2009

Beckett, J. L, Oltjen, J. W "Estimation of the Water Requirement for Beef Production in the United States". Journal of Animal Science. 1993. 71:818-826

"Water". Environmental Working Group.

"Water footprint of crop and animal products: a comparison". Water Footprint Network. 

Oppenlander, Richard A. Food Choice and Sustainability: Why Buying Local, Eating Less Meat, and Taking Baby Steps Won’t Work. Minneapolis, MN: Langdon Street, 2013. Print

477 gallons of water are required to produce 1lb. of eggs;  almost 900 gallons of water are needed for 1lb. of cheese. 

"Water". Environmental Working Group.

"Food Facts: How Much Water Does it Take to Produce...?" Water Education Foundation. 

 

1,000 gallons of water are required to produce 1 gallon of milk.

Hoekstra, Arjen Y. "The water footprint of food". Water for Food.

Mekonnen, Mesfin M. & Hoekstra, Arjen Y. "A Global Assessment of the Water Footprint of Farm Animal Products". Ecosystems (2012) 15: 401-415

 

5% of water consumed in the US is by private homes. 55% of water consumed in the US is for animal agriculture.   [xv]

Jacobson, Michael F. “Six Arguments For a Greener Diet: How a More Plant-based Diet Could Save Your Health and the Environment. Chapter 4: More and Cleaner Water”. Washington, DC: Center for Science in the Public Interest, 2006.

 

Animal Agriculture is responsible for 20%-33% of all fresh water consumption in the world today.  

Mekonnen, Mesfin M. & Hoekstra, Arjen Y. "A Global Assessment of the Water Footprint of Farm Animal Products". Ecosystems (2012) 15: 401-415

Gerbens-Leenes, P.W. et al. "The water footprint of poultry, pork and beef: A comparitive study in different countries and production systems". Water Resources and Industry. Vol. 1-2, March-June 2013, Pages 25-36

Herrero, Mario, et al. "Biomass use, production, feed efficiencies, and greenhouse gas emissions from global livestock systems". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. vol. 110 no. 52

Oppenlander DDS, Richard. "Freshwater Abuse and Loss. Where Is It All Going?" Forks over Knives. May 20,2013

 

LAND

Livestock or livestock feed occupies 1/3 of the earth’s ice-free land. 

"Livestock a major threat to environment. Remedies urgently needed". FAO Newsroom. 29 November 2006

Walsh, Bryan. "The Triple Whopper Environmental Impact of Global Meat Production". Time. Dec. 16, 2013 

 

Livestock covers 45% of the earth’s total land.

Thornton, Phillip, et al. "Livestock and climate change". Livestock xchange. International Livestock Research Institute. November 2011

Smith, Pete & Bustamante, Mercedes, et al. "Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU)". Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Chapter 11

 

Animal agriculture is the leading cause of species extinction, ocean dead zones, water pollution, and habitat destruction.  [xix]  [iv]

Animal agriculture contributes to species extinction in many ways. In addition to the monumental habitat destruction caused by clearing forests and converting land to grow feed crops and for animal grazing, predators and "competition" species are frequently targeted and hunted because of a perceived threat to livestock profits. The widespread use of pesticides, herbicides and chemical fertilizers used in the production of feed crops often interferes with the reproductive systems of animals and poison waterways. The overexploitation of wild species through commercial fishing, bushmeat trade as well as animal agriculture’s impact on climate change, all contribute to global depletion of species and resources. [XIX]

 

"Biodiversity and Food Choice: A Clarification". comfortablyunaware: Global Depletion and Food Choice Responsibility. June 9, 2012

"Freshwater Depletion: Realities of Choice". comfortablyunaware: Global Depletion and Food Choice Responsibility. November 25, 2014

"What is a dead zone?" National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

"What Causes Ocean 'Dead Zones'?" Scientific American

"Nutrient Pollution: The Problem". Environmental Protection Agency

"Livestock's Long Shadow". Food and Agriculture Organization of The United Nations. 2006

Hogan, C Michael. "Causes of Extinction". The Encyclopedia of Earth. June 13, 2014

"The Habitable Planet. Unit 9: Biodiversity Decline// Section 7: Habitat Loss: Causes and Consequences". Annenberg Learner

"Impact of habitat loss on species". WWF Global

"How Eating Meat Hurts Wildlife and the Planet". Take Extinction Off Your Plate: a project of the Center for Biological Diversity.

Machovina, Brian, et al. "Biodiversity conservation: The key is reducing meat consumption". Science of the Total Environment 536 (2015) 419-431

"Risk Management Evaluation for Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations". U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2004Hance, Jeremy. "How humans are driving the sixth mass extinction". The Guardian. 20 October 2015 

Zielinski, Sarah. "Ocean Dead Zones Are Getting Worse Globally Due to Climate Change". Smithsonian.com. November 10, 2014 

Tilman, David, et al. "Agricultural sustainability and intensive production practices". Nature 418, 671-677. August 2002 

Wilcove, David S, et al. "Quantifying Threats to Imperiled Species in the United States". BioScience. Vol. 48, No. 8 (Aug., 1998) pp. 607-615

 

Livestock operations on land have created more than 500 nitrogen flooded deadzones around the world in our oceans. 

"NOAA-, EPA-supported scientists find average but large Gulf dead zone". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. August 4, 2014

Zielinski, Sarah. "Ocean Dead Zones Are Getting Worse Globally Due to Climate Change". Smithsonian.com. November 10, 2014 

 

Largest mass extinction in 65 million years.

Eldredge, Niles. "The Sixth Extinction". ActionBioscince. June 2001

"Mass extinction of species has begun". Phys.org. February 23, 2006

Ceballos, Gerardo, et al. "Accelerated modern human-induced species loss: Entering the sixth mass extinction". Science Advances. 19 June 2015. Vol. 1, no. 5

 

2-5 acres of land are used per cow. 

McBride, William D., Mathews Jr., Kenneth. "The Diverse Structure and Organization of U.S. Beef Cow-Calf Farms". USDA: Economic Research Service. Number 73. March 2011

Oppenlander, Richard A. Food Choice and Sustainability: Why Buying Local, Eating Less Meat, and Taking Baby Steps Won’t Work. 

Minneapolis, MN: Langdon Street, 2013. Print.

Nearly half of the contiguous US is devoted to animal agriculture. 

Glaser, Christine, et al. "Costs and Consequences: The Real Price of Livestock Grazing on America's Public Lands". For the Center for Biological Diversity. January 2015

The US lower 48 states represents 1.9 billion acres. Of that 1.9 billion acres: 778 million acres of private land are used for livestock grazing (forest grazing, pasture grazing, and crop grazing), 345 million acres for feed crops, 230 million acres of public land are used for grazing livestock. 

Nickerson, Cynthia, et al. "Major Uses of Land in the United States, 2007". USDA: Economic Research Service. Number 89. December 2011

"Rearing cattle produces more greenhouse gases than driving cars, UN report warns". UN News Centre. 29 November 2006

1/3 of the planet is desertified, with livestock as the leading driver.   [xviii]

"UN launches International Year of Deserts and Desertification". UN News Centre. 1 January 2006

Oppenlander, Richard A. Less Meat, and Taking Baby Steps Won’t Work. Minneapolis, MN : Langdon Street, 2013. Print.

Hogan, C Michael. "Overgrazing". The Encyclopedia of Earth. May 1, 2010

"Desertification, Drought Affect One Third of Planet, World's Poorest People, Second Committee Told as It Continues Debate on Sustainable Development". United Nations Sixty-seventh General Assembly: Second Committee. 8 November 2012

Oppenlander, Richard. "Saving the World With Livestock? The Allan Savory Approach Examined". Free from Harm. August 6, 2013

 

WASTE

Every minute, 7 million pounds of excrement are produced by animals raised for food in the US. 

This doesn’t include the animals raised outside of USDA jurisdiction or in backyards, or the billions of fish raised in aquaculture settings in the US.   [v]

"Animal Manure Management". USDA: Natural Resources Conservation Service. RCA Issue Bief #7. December 1995

"Agricultural Waste Management Field Handbook". USDA: Natural Resources Conservation Service. Part 651

"Agricultural Waste Characteristics". Agricultural Waste Management Field Handbook. USDA. Chapter 4

 

A farm with 2,500 dairy cows produces the same amount of waste as a city of 411,000 people. [vi]

"Risk Assessment Evaluation for Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations".Environmental Protection Agency. 2004

 

130 times more animal waste than human waste is produced in the US – 1.4 billion tons from the meat industry annually. 5 tons of animal waste is produced per person in the US.   [xii] 

"Animal Agriculture: Waste Management Practices". United States General Accounting Office. July 1999

 

In the U.S. livestock produce 116,000 lbs of waste per second:  

-Dairy Cows, 120 lbs. of waste per day x 9.32 million dairy cows

-Cows,  63 lbs. of waste per day x 83.68 million cows

-Calves, 30 lbs. of waste per day x 34.3 million calves

-Pigs, 14 lbs. of waste per day x 74 million pigs

-Sheep and Goats, 5 lbs. of waste per day x 7.84 million sheep and goats

-Turkeys, .87 lbs. of waster per day x 77 million turkeys

-Broiler Chickens, .50 lbs. of waste per day x 1.74 billion broiler chickens 

-Laying Hens, .25 lbs. of waster per day x 350.7 million laying hens

*pigs are raised twice per year, (a total of 148.3 million per year) so on any given day in the United States there are about 74 million pigs.

*turkeys are raised three times per year (a total of 233 million per year) so on any given day in the United States there are 77 million turkeys.

*broiler chickens are raised 5 times per year, (a total of 8.69 billion per year) so any given day there are1.74 billion broiler chickens.

Dairy Cows produce (120 lbs. x 9.32 m.) = 1.1184 billion lbs.

Cows produce (63 lbs. x 83.68 m.) = 5.27184 billion lbs.

Calves produce (30 lbs. x 34.3 m.) = 1.029 billion lbs.

Pigs produce (14 lbs. x 74.0 m.) = 1.036 billion lbs.

Sheep and Goats produce (5 lbs. x 7.84 m.) = 39.2 million lbs.

Turkeys produce (.87 lbs. x 77.0 m.) = 66.99 million lbs.

Broiler Chickens produce (.5 x 1.74 b.) = 870 million lbs.

Laying Hens produce (.25 x 350.7 m.) = 87.675 million lbs. 

 

*Total manure produced in one day is 9.519105 billion lbs. 

*Total manure produced in one year is 3.475 trillion lbs.

 

*This is the equivalent of over 6.611 million lbs. per minute. (This does not include any animal raised outside of USDA Jurisdiction, backyards or fish raised for aquaculture)

Animals produce Enough waste to cover SF, NYC, Tokyo, etc, 

based off 1lb of waste per 1sqft at 1.4 billion tons.

*Total manure produced in one year is 3.475 trillion lbs. (From above calculation.) 

US Livestock produce 335 million tons of “dry matter” per year.

 

OCEANS

3/4 of the world’s fisheries are exploited or depleted.

"Overfishing: a threat to marine biodiversity". United Nations Environment Programme

"General situation of world fish stocks". United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization

 

We could see fishless oceans by 2048. 

Worm, Boris, et al. "Impacts of Biodiversity Loss on Ocean Ecosystem Services". Science. Vol 314. 3 November 2006

Roach, John. "Seafood May Be Gone by 2048, Study Says". National Geographic News.  November 2, 2006

Montaigne, Fen. "Still Waters: The Global Fish Crisis". National Geographic

 

90-100 million tons of fish are pulled from our oceans each year.   [vii]

"World Review of Fisheries and Aquaculture: Part 1". United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization

 

As many as 2.7 trillion animals are pulled from the ocean each year.

Mood, A & Brooke, P. "Estimating the Number of Fish Caught in Global Fishing Each Year". July 2010

"Fish count estimates". Fishcount.org.uk

 

For every 1 pound of fish caught, up to 5 pounds of unintended marine species are caught and discarded as by-kill.   [viii]

"Discard and bycatch in Shrimp trawl fisheries". FAO: Fisheries and Aquaculture Department

As many as 40% (63 billion pounds) of fish caught globally every year are discarded.

Keledjian, Amanda, et al. "Wasted Catch: Unsolved Problems in U.S. Fisheries". Oceana. March 2014

Goldenberg, Suzanne. "America's nine most wasteful fisheries named". The Guardian. 20 March 2014

 

Scientists estimate as many as 650,000 whales, dolphins and seals are killed every year by fishing vessels.

Keledjian, Amanda, et al. "Wasted Catch: Unsolved Problems in U.S. Fisheries". Oceana. March 2014

Goldenberg, Suzanne. "America's nine most wasteful fisheries named". The Guardian. 20 March 2014

 

Fish catch peaks at 85 million tons. 

"World Review of Fisheries and Aquaculture: Part 1". UN: Food and Argriculture Organization. 2012

Pala, Christopher. "Official statistics understate global fish catch, new estimate concludes". Science. January 2016 

Pauly, Daniel & Zeller, Dirk. "Catch reconstructions reveal that global marine fisheries catches are higher than reported and declining". Nature Communications. Vol. 7. 2016 

 

40-50 million sharks killed in fishing lines and nets. 

"Shark Fin Trade Myths and Truths: BYCATCH". Shark Savers

"Sharks at Risk". Animal Welfare Institute

Stone, Dan. "100 Million Sharks Killed Every Year, Study Show on Eve of International Conference on Shark Protection". National Geographic: Ocean Views. March, 2013 

Worm, Boris, et al. "Global catches, exploitation rates, and rebuilding options for sharks". Marine Policy. 40 (2013) 194-204 

 

RAINFOREST

Animal agriculture is responsible for up to 91% of Amazon destruction.

Margulis, Sergio. "Causes of Deforestation of the Brazilian Amazon". World Bank Working Paper No. 22. 2003

Tabuchi, Hiroko, Rigny, Claire & White, Jeremy. "Amazon Deforestation, Once Tames, Comes Roaring Back". New York Times. February 2017

Bellantonio, Marisa, et al. "The Ultimate Mystery Meat: Exposing the Secrets Behind Burger King and Global Meat Production". Mighty Earth 

Oppenlander, Richard A. Food Choice and Sustainability: Why Buying Local, Eating Less Meat, and Taking Baby Steps Won’t Work. . Minneapolis, MN : Langdon Street, 2013. Print.

1-2 acres of rainforest are cleared every second. 

"Measuring the Daily Destruction of the World's Rainforests". Scientific American 

Butler, Rhett. "10 Rainforest Facts for 2017". Mongabay.com. January, 2017 

"Avoiding Unsustainable Rainforest Wood". Rainforest Relief

Reid, Walter V. & Miller, Kenton R. "Keeping Options Alive: The Scientific Basis for Conserving Biodiveristy". World Resources Institute. October 1989

"Tropical Deforestation". National Aeronautics and Space Administration: Facts

 

The leading causes of rainforest destruction are livestock and feedcrops.

Butler, Rhett. "Cattle Ranching's Impact on the Rainforest". Mongabay.com. July 2012 

Veiga, J.B., et al. "Cattle Ranching in the Amazon Rainforest". UN: Food and Agriculture Oragnization 

"Soy Agriculture in the Amazon Basin". Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Sudies: Global Forest Atlas 

 

Up to 137 plant, animal and insect species are lost every day due to rainforest destruction. 

"The Disappearing Rainforests". Save the Amazon.org

"What is Deforestation?" Kids.Mongabay.com

Message from Mr. Ahmed Djoghlaf. Secretariat of the Convention of Biological Diversity. United Nations Economic Programme

Vidal, John. "Protect nature for world economic security, warns UN biodiversity chief". The Guardian. August 2010 

 

26 million rainforest acres (10.8m hectares) have been cleared for palm oil production. [ix]

"Indonesia: Palm Oil Expansion Unaffected by Forest Moratorium". USDA: Foreign Agriculture Service. June 2013

 

136 million rainforest acres cleared for animal agriculture. 

Butler, Rhett. "Amazon Destruction". Mongabay.com. January 2017

Butler, Rhett A. "Brazilian beef giant announces moratorium on rainforest beef". Mongabay. August 2009

 

1,100 Land activists have been killed in Brazil in the past 20 years.   [x]

Batty, David. "Brazilian faces retrial over murder of environmental activist nun in Amazon". The Guardian. April 2009

Butler, Rhett A. "20 years ago the Amazon lost its strongest advocate". Mongabay. December 2008

Sandy, Matt. "Murder of Brazil official marks new low in war on Amazon environmentalists". The Guardian. October 2016 

Nuwer, Rachel. "The Rising Murder Count of Environmental Activists". The New York Times. June 2016 

 

Further reading on Sister Dorothy Stang.

"About Sister Dorothy Stang". Sister of Notre Dame de Namur

 

Wildlife

USDA predator killing of wild animals to protect livestock. 

"The USDA's War on Wildlife". Predator Defense

Washington state killed the wedge pack of wolves.

Maughan, Ralph. "Wedge wolf pack will be killed because of its increasing beef consumption". The Wildlife News. September 2012

 

More wild horses and burros in government holding facilities than are free on the range. 

"Program Data: On Range Population Estimates as of March 1, 2016". Bureau of Land Management

 

Ten thousand years ago, 99% of biomass (i.e. zoomass) was wild animals. Today, humans and the animals that we raise as food make up 98% of the zoomass.

Ede, Sharon. "The Bomb is Still Ticking...". Post growth: From bigger towards better. November 2010

Smil, Vaclav. "Harvesting the Biosphere: The Human Impact". 

Population and Development Review 37 (4): 613-636 (December 2011)

 

HUMANITY


414 billion dollars in externalized cost from animal ag.   [xvi]

Simon, David. "Are Big Macs Killing Bees?" Meatonomic$: The Bizarre Economics of Meat and Dairy. April 2014

Friedrich, Bruce. "Meatonomics: The Bizarre Economics of the Meat & Dairy Industries". The Huffington Post. November 2013

 

80% of antibiotic sold in the US are for livestock.

Loglisci, Ralph. "New FDA Number's Reveal Food Animals Consume Lion's Share of Antibiotics". Center for a livable future. December 2010

"2009 Summary Report on Antimicrobials Sold or Distributed for Use in Food-Producing Animals". FDA: Departent of Health and Human Services. September, 2014

Zuraw, Lydia. "2015 in Review: Animal Antibiotics". Food Safety News. December 2015 

Flanders, Timothy F, RN, CNP, PHD, et al. "A Review of Antibiotic Use in Food Animals: Perspective, Policy, and Potential". Public Health Reports 2012 Jan-Feb; 127 (1): 4-22 

 

World population in 1812: 1 billion; 1912: 1.5 billion; 2012: 7 billion. 

"Human Numbers Through Time". Nova

"Current World Population". Worldometers

 

70 billion farmed animals are reared annually worldwide. More than 6 million animals are killed for food every hour.

"Factory Farms". A Well Fed World

"Strategic Plan 2013-2017: For Kinder, Fairer Farming Worldwide". Compassion in World Farming

"Animals Slaughtered". Animals Deserve Absolute Protection Today and Tomorrow

Oppenlander, Richard A.Food Choices and Sustainability: Why Buying Local, Eating Less Meat, and Taking Baby Steps Won’t Work. Minneapolis, MN : Langdon Street, 2013. Print.

https://www.barnesandnoble.com/w/food-choice-and-sustainability-richard-a-oppenlander/1117327379?ean=9781626524354

 

Throughout the world, humans drink 5.2 billion gallons of water and eat 21 billion pounds of food each day. 

There are 7.5011 billion people on earth

Based on rough averages of water at .5-1 gallon (.75 gallons) x 7.5011 billion = 5.626 billion gallons of water and 7,605 metric tons of food produced per minute = 24.143 billion pounds of food per day.

 

Worldwide, cows drink 45 billion gallons of water and eat 135 billion pounds of food each day.

Based on rough averages of 30 gallons of water & 100 lbs. of food per day x 

of cows 1.468 billion cows

 

We are currently growing enough food to feed 10 billion people. 

Holt-Giménez, Eric. "We Already Grow Enough Food for 10 Billion People...and Still Can't End Hunger”. Common Dreams: Breaking News & Views for the Progressive Community. May 2012

"U.S. could feed 800 million people with grain that livestock eat, Cornell ecologist advises animal scientists". Cornell Chronicle. August, 1997

Cassidy, Emily S, et al. "Redefining agricultural yields: form tonnes to people nourished per acre". Environmental Research Letters 8 (2013) 034015 (8pp). August 2013

 

Worldwide, at least 50% of grain is fed to livestock. 

"Executive Summary: Feed Supply". Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 

"Meat and Animal Feed". Global Agriculture. Agriculture at a Crossroads. Findings and recommendations for future farming. 

Shah, Anup. "Beef: Diverting resources to environmentally destructive uses". Global Issues. August 2010

"Did you know? U.S. and Wisconsin soybean facts". Wisconsin Soybean Marketing Board

 

82% of starving children live in countries where food is fed to animals, and the animals are eaten by western countries.

Oppenlander, Dr. Richard. "The World Hunger-Food Choice Connection: A Summary". Comfortably Unaware Blog. August 2012

"Improving Child Nutrition: The achievable imperative for global progress". UNICEF. April 2013

"Livestock production index". The World Bank

"Global livestock production systems". Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Rome 2011

 

15x more protein on any given area of land with plants, rather than cows.

Soybeans can be produced at 52. 5 bushels per acre x 60 lbs. per bushel = 3,150 dry soybeans per acre

Soybeans protein content (dry) is 163.44 grams per pound

The protein content per acre of soybeans is 163.44 g x 3,150 lb. = 514,836 g per acre

Beef can be produced at 205 pounds per acre

Beef protein content (raw) is 95.34 grams per pound

The protein content per acre of beef is 95.34 g x 205 lb. = 19,544.7 g per acre

 

The average American consumes 209 pounds of meat per year. 

DeBruicker, Julie. "How much do we eat, anyway?" John Hopkins Center for a Liveable Future. March 2011

"Kings of the Carnivores. Vegetarians should look away". The Economist. April 2012

Barnard, M.D, Neal. "Do We Eat Too Much Meat?" The Huffington Post Blog. January 2011

Gould, Skye & Friedman, Lauren F. "The countries where people eat the most meat". Business Insider. September 2015

 

World Population grows 228,000+ people everyday.

"Current World Population". Worldometers 

"Visualizations of population growth". The Population Institute

 

Land required to feed 1 person for 1 year:

Vegan: 1/6th acre

Vegetarian: 3x as much as a vegan

Meat Eater: 18x as much as a vegan   [xvii]

Robbins, John. Diet for a New America, StillPoint Publishing, 1987, p. 352

"Our Food Our Future. Making a Difference With Every Bite: The Power of the Fork!" EarthSave International

Eishel, Gordon, et al. "Land, irrigation water, greenhouse gas, reactive nitrogen burdens of meat, eggs and dairy production in the United States". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Vol. 111 No. 33 June 2014

 

1.5 acres can produce 37,000 pounds of plant-based food.

1.5 acres can produce 375 pounds of beef. 

Oppenlander, Richard A. Food Choice and Sustainability: Why Buying Local, Eating Less Meat, and Taking Baby Steps Won’t Work. Minneapolis, MN : Langdon Street, 2013. Print.

https://www.barnesandnoble.com/w/food-choice-and-sustainability-richard-a-oppenlander/1117327379?ean=9781626524354

"Direct Seeded Vegetable Crop Chart". Johnny's Selected Seeds

Schwab, Denise, et al. "Grass-fed and Organic Beef: Production Costs and Breakeven Market Prices, 2008-2009". Iowa State University 2012

 

A person who follows a vegan diet produces the equivalent of 50% less carbon dioxide, uses 1/11th oil, 1/13th water, and 1/18th land compared to a meat-lover for their food.   [xx]

"The carbon foodprint of five diets compared". Shrink That Footprint

Scarborough, Peter, et al. "Dietary greenhouse-gas emissions of meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans in the UK". Climactic Change. July 2014. Volume 125. Issue 2. pp. 179-192

Pimentel, David & Pimental, Marcia. "Sustainability of meat-based and plant-based diets and the environment". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. September 2003. vol 78. no 3 660S-663S

"Facts on Animal Farming and the Environment". One Green Planet.

"Vegetarianism and the Environment. Why going meatless is important". Vegetarian Guide

"Our Future Our Food. Making a Difference With Every Bite: The Power of the Fork!". Earth Save International

Ranganathan, Janet & Waite, Richard. "Sustainable Diets: What You Need to Know in 12 Charts". World Resources Institute. April 2016 

  

Each day, a person who eats a vegan diet saves 1,100 gallons of water, 45 pounds of grain, 30 sq ft of forested land, 20 lbs CO2 equivalent, and one animal’s life.   [xiv]

Scarborough, Peter, et al. "Dietary greenhouse gas emissions of meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans in the UK". Climactic Change July 2014., Volume 125, Issue 2, pp 179-192

"Meat Eater's Guide to Climate Change and Health". Environmental Working Group. 2011

Ranganathan, Janet & Waite, Richard. "Sustainable Diets: What You Need to Know in 12 Charts". World Resources Institute. April 2016 

"How much have you saved?" The Vegan Calculator 

Ogden, Lillie. "The Environmental Impact of a Meat-Based Diet". Vegetarian Times. 

Oppenlander, Richard A. Food choice and Sustainability: Why Buying Local, Eating Less Meat, and Taking Baby Steps Won’t Work. Minneapolis, MN : Langdon Street, 2013. Print.

https://www.barnesandnoble.com/w/food-choice-and-sustainability-richard-a-oppenlander/1117327379?ean=9781626524354


Further reading on US food disparagement law 

Eckley, Erika H & McEowen, Roger A. "Pink Slime and the Legal History of Food Disparagement". Agricultural and Applied Economics Association: Choices. 4th Quarter 2012 


Further reading on Animal Enterprise Terrorism Act (AETA)

"S. 3880 (109th): Animal Enterprise Terrorism Act". govtrack


The problem with the Allan Savory's grazing approach. 

Oppenlander, Richard. "Saving the World with Livestock? The Allan Savory Approach Examined". Free from Harm. August 2013

McWilliams, James F. "All Sizzle and No Steak. Why Allan Savory's TED talk about how cattle can reverse global warming is dead wrong". Slate

Wuerthner, George. "Allan Savory: Myth and Reality". The Wildlife News. November 2013


For more on our diet and the environment please check out

COWSPIRACY



animal welfare


FOR MORE ON ANIMAL WELFARE PLEASE CHECK OUT

ChICKENS

ChICKENS

ALL photos: Jo-anne MCarthur

Hens in battery cages

Hens spend their lives in artificially lit surroundings designed to maximise laying activity. Each hen has to share the cage with between 3 and 20 other hens, that can allocate space less than that of an A4 sized piece of paper per hen. This is insufficient room to act on natural instincts and behaviours like wing flapping, grooming, preening, stretching, foraging and dust bathing. They are forced to stand on wire their whole lives.

Like the broiler chickens, they are “debeaked” at a few days old with no pain relief. In factory farms this is done because when hens are confined to a cage, they often become so frustrated that they resort to pecking or bullying their cage mates. Debeaking is therefore routinely used by egg producers to limit the damage that hens can cause to one another. It is not needed when hens are given more space and the ability to fulfil natural instincts.

Flocks are sometimes force moulted, rather than being slaughtered, to reinvigorate egg-laying. This involves complete withdrawal of food (and sometimes water) for 7 to 14 days or sufficiently long to cause a body weight loss of 25 to 35%. This stimulates the hen to lose her feathers, but also reinvigorates egg-production. Some flocks may be force moulted several times.

Hens can naturally live up to 10 years, but in the egg industry they are slaughtered as soon as their egg production slows at an average of 18 months old.

Battery cages are banned in EU, UK and 7 states in the USA. New Zealand and Canada are now in their phase-out period, ending all battery cage egg production in 2022 and 2032, respectively.

The proportion of caged eggs sold in supermarkets has fallen from 75% to 49%over the past decade in Australia, demonstrating what the consumer wants.

Coles from their own brand from 2013, and Woolworths and Aldi applying the ban to all eggs from 2025.

McDonald’s, Hungry Jacks and Subway have all committed to phase out cage eggs in their stores and in the USA major companies are committing to move away from cage eggs. Almost 200 US companies have pledged to use only cage-free eggs by 2025. This list includes major grocery and fast food chains, which are collectively responsible for purchasing half of the 7 billion eggs laid monthly.

Male Chickens

Males are not able to lay eggs and have not been selectively bred for their size or meat quality, male chicks are generally considered unsuitable for meat production, and accordingly, are slaughtered following hatching.

The permitted methods of slaughter include carbon dioxide gassing or maceration (grinding of live chicks). As many as 12 million male chicks are killed this way each year in Australia and hundreds of hundreds of millions in the USA and the rest of the world.

Briefing on hen welfare in the Australian egg industry

Unscrambled: The hidden truth of hen welfare in the Australian egg industry


Broiler Chickens

About 90% of chickens in Australia and 95% in the US are raised in intensive factory farms. Current industry codes allow chickens to be stocked at densities as high as 20 birds per square metre. This leaves each fully grown chicken with personal space approximately the size of an A4 page.

High stocking densities have been shown to cause a number of welfare concerns for broiler chickens, including increased rates of mortality, diseases such as breast blisters, chronic dermatitis and leg disorders, reduced walking ability and behavioural activity, and disturbed resting patterns.

Chickens are subjected to artificial lighting for long periods to increase feeding time and productivity, and to control aggression resulting from high stocking density.

Standing on a floor increasingly comprised of their own faeces unable to see sunlight and lacking personal space, chickens kept in intensive conditions experience various issues that compromise their welfare. They are not able to perform some of their most fundamental behaviours such as roosting and nurturing their young.

http://www.frepa.com.au/frepa-accredited-farms-some-facts-and-figures/

http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0007/212974/Lighting-of-poultry.pdf





pigs

pigs

female PIGS

In Australia, pregnant pigs are permitted by law to spend a significant portion of their lives confined to 'sow stalls'. These are small metal and concrete cages barely larger than the mother pig’s body, restricting her so she cannot even turn around. Pigs on average will be impregnated and give birth four times over two years before being killed.

After giving birth, sows are confined in a ‘farrowing crate’ that barely allows them to move to “protect” their babies for around 6 weeks. When pigs have babies in the wild they create nests and do not harm their babies. These confined crates used in factory farms are only used to maximise profit in the smallest space.

Sow stalls have been partially banned in the United Kingdom, Sweden and New Zealand, Switzerland, The Netherlands, Finland and nine US States.

Here in Australia, major retailer Coles’ own brand pork products have been sow stall free since 2013, while Woolworths has also committed to sourcing all of its fresh pork meat from farms that only use stalls for less than 10% of the sows’ gestation period. Yet still it has not become law across Australia.

male pigs

Pigs raised for meat are housed in crowded, concrete-floored pens inside shed with no natural materials. On average there are 10-40 000 pigs per shed.

They have their teeth clipped and tails docked routinely with no pain relief, due to the fighting that occurs when pigs are kept this confined in unnatural environments.

1.5 billion pigs are slaughtered world-wide for their meat every year.

5 million in Australia

10.6 million in the UK

121 million in the USA

700 + million in China (1/2 the worlds pork)

90 % are raised on factory farms.

Voiceless Briefing on sow stalls
http://www.ciwf.org.uk/farm-animals/pigs/welfare-issues/
From Paddocks to Prison

http://www.humanesociety.org/issues/confinement_farm/facts/gestation_crates.html

Science and Sense: the case for abolishing sow stalls

https://www.aussiefarms.org.au/kb/pigs

https://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/food-and-drink/pork-production-truth-pig-farming-uk-factory-hughfearnley-whittingstall-sienna-miller-mick-jagger-a7813746.html


COWS

COWS

COWS FOR BEEF

The approximately 25 million cows raised for beef in Australia spend part of their lives grazing grass outdoors on farms.

They are subjected to dehorning, branding and castration without pain relief. Due to the climate in Australia, over-grazing occurs commonly over much of Australia because rainfall and therefore feed supplies are often erratic. (When droughts hit, the cows - and other animals - often starve. According to industry reports, on average, around 9% of steers die each year and 6% of females die before slaughter.)

80% of cows raised for beef then are transported to feedlots to spend 50-120 days being “fattened” up. There are around 400 accredited feedlots throughout Australia.

In natural conditions and environments, cows spend up to 12 hours per day grazing on grass. Cattle are ruminants and are not physiologically adapted to eat cereal. In a feedlot, they are fed an unnatural diet of grains (and antibiotics) to get big quick, while kept in a high-density stocking ratio with thousands of other cows.

Cattle in feedlots suffer pulpy kidney, foot rot, respiratory disease( 50%-90% of cattle mortality in feedlots), heat stress, feedlot bloat and acidosis. In summer, cattle are often without shelter existing in dust bowls and in winter they stand in wet, muddy puddles.

Australia has approximately 3% of the world’s cattle, with the US, Brazil, China India and the EU being some of the top producers internationally, processing 100-200 million cattle each per year. Many farms also raise their beef in feedlots in these countries. On a single site, large outdoor feedlots may contain from 2000 to over 100,000 cattle.

Australia is the third largest beef exporter in the world, exporting 68% of beef and veal raised in Australia to overseas to 100 markets. Some of this export (approximately 6%) is done by live export, which the majority of Australia’s population is against. Despite many exposes and the public demand for it to stop, Australia is the world's largest exporter of live sheep and one of the largest exporters of live cattle, by sea, for slaughter.

The demand for grass-fed beef - meat from cows that are not finished in feedlots - is growing. In the US, the sector grew from $6 million in 2012 to $89 million in 2016, driven by consumers concerned about sustainability, health, and animal welfare.

 Cows live for approximately 25 years naturally but will be killed before the age of two.

https://www.mla.com.au/globalassets/mla-corporate/prices--markets/documents/trends--analysis/fast-facts--maps/mla_beef-fast-facts-2017_final.pdf

http://www.livecorp.com.au/industry-information/industry-statistics

https://www.weeklytimesnow.com.au/agribusiness/decisionag/the-brazilian-beef-industrys-slow-climb-could-be-a-nightmare-for-australia/news-story/89557e992a11ff036ca0812fa4b6a8be

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2018/may/29/revealed-industrial-scale-beef-farming-comes-to-the-uk

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2451943X16300278

https://www.gao.gov/assets/290/280229.pdf

 Retail sales of organic, fresh grass-fed beef 

DAIRY COWS

Australia has 1.6 million dairy cows.

The number of dairy farms has fallen by almost three quarters since 1980, and halved in the last 20 years, to 5,699 in mid-2018. Changing business has pushed a shift to larger, more intensive operating systems with greater economies of scale, with more than 1000 herd a head. Dairy farms are still mostly owned and operated by Australian families but Australia’s milk processing -turning raw milk into dairy products such as milk, cheese, butter -is dominated by multi-national companies. Australia exports approximately half of the production of milk.
The dominant breed in Australia is the Holstein, accounting for around 70% of all dairy cattle in Australia and the majority world-wide.

Dairy cows are forced to endure dehorning, branding and tail docking with no pain relief.

80% of Australian dairy farms are pasture-fed, meaning the cows in Australia do get to graze in open paddocks. This is not the case for most dairy farms in the US, Europe and China.

50% of these Australia, pasture-raised farms also supplement feeding their cows over 1 tonne of grain/supplementary feed each year.

In 2010, it was estimated that 2% of Australian dairies are now a feedlot-style systems like overseas. Since that time, there has been significant growth in the intensive dairy industry with new proposals for large intensive systems across Australian dairy regions.

Currently organic dairy makes up just less that 10% of the production of milk in Australia. Certified organic dairy farms adhere to strict regulations which define how animal health and welfare and environmental sustainability are managed. The use of synthetic chemicals, fertilisers and GMOs are not allowed, instead they use natural composts, manures and other preparations to improve the soil’s capacity to grow pasture (which in turn feeds the cows). Organic standards also prohibit cows being confined to a feedlot – they must have continuous access to pasture

Selective breeding and genetic manipulation has resulted in production of cows who produce enormous amounts of milk.  The modern dairy cow can produce about 35-50 litres of milk per day—about ten times more milk than her calf would need. The udders become huge and with the machine operated milking, 10-15% of dairy cows in a herd suffer from mastitis, a severely painful condition that can kill the mothers.

To ensure she continues to produce high volumes of milk throughout her life, a dairy cow is forcibly impregnated so that she gives birth to a new calf every 13 months.

Dairy calves are taken from their mothers, often only hours after being born. Mammals have very strong bonds between mother and child, and this forced separation causes both cows and calves suffer. Farmers report the mother bellows for days when her child is taken.

While a proportion of female calves are kept as replacements for the milk producing herd, those females who are not required and all male calves are considered ‘wastage’ and are slaughtered shortly after birth. They are transported for up to 12 hours to the slaughter house and in the led up, the calves can go up to 30 hours without any milk by law. Calves will normally suckle five times a day.

Approximately 450,000 unwanted dairy calves are slaughtered in Australia each year.

The bobby calf issue applies to both conventional and organic systems, although some smaller organic and biodynamic farms choose to rear bobby calves on the farm until they are a few months old. This is not a common as it costs farms to maintain bobby calves on farm. (They want the milk to sell, not for the babies as intended by nature)

Each year tens of thousands of dairy cattle are shipped overseas from Australia for breeding.

Dairy cows will be slaughtered at 4- 7 years or below, once their milk production slows.

OVERSEAS

There are approximately 250 million cows producing milk around the world.

USA

The US has lost 90% of its dairy farms since 1970 and over the past decade a decline of about 30%. There are now around 40,000 farms. Most of these are small farms, which are currently struggling financially due to price restrictions from processing plants and super giants. 60% of America’s milk comes from farms with generally between 1000-5000 but some with tens of thousands of cows on mega-dairies.

California is the number one dairy state but the Dairy industry is moving through other states with the intention of growth.

There are 9.4 million dairy cows in the USA. The majority of them are reared on intensive concentrated farms - factory farms.

Intensive dairying forces dairy cows to live in large sheds with hard flooring and significantly reduced space. Many of these systems introduce a stall-style system where cows live separately and are given barely enough room to stretch their legs or move around. This restricted space can deeply affect cows who are naturally motivated to exercise, and can result in cows exhibiting abnormal behaviours, such as tongue-rolling or excessive licking and grooming. Cows are meant to graze on grass - but when kept on intensive farms they are fed an unnatural diet of grains.

Cows may be dosed with bovine growth hormone (rBGH) which has been banned in the UK and EU.

A dairy-industry study found that by the time they are killed, nearly 50 percent of cows are lame because of standing on concrete flooring and filth in intensive confinement.

The bobby calves that are not killed immediately are kept in cramped pens or tiny crates, where they’re prevented from moving much so that their flesh will stay tender. In order to make their flesh white, the calves are fed a diet that is low in iron and has little nutritive value. They frequently suffer from anaemia, diarrhoea, and pneumonia before being killed at only a few months old as veal.

In 2017, the US dairy industry sold $577 million in dairy products to China, nearly a 50 percent increase over the previous year.

The European Union is currently the biggest dairy exporter to China, according to the US Department of Agriculture, with a share of nearly 50 percent. New Zealand follows, with a 33 percent share of the market. Australia has nearly 7 percent, followed by 6 percent for the US.


EU

The EU is one of the biggest dairy producer’s with, 23 million cows. Within the EU Germany has the most at over 4.2 million dairy cows. Roughly 20% of these dairy cows in Germany are chained and most of them spend their lives perpetually pregnant in cow sheds and feedlots designed to further boost supply with just a third getting to graze.

There is currently no EU legislation specifically on the welfare of dairy cows. While the dairy tradition was for the small farms, the trend for the mega-dairy continues through Europe, with all the same issues of animal welfare.

In one investigation in EU, 68% of farms in Denmark, 63% in Spain and more than 50% in Germany of dairy farms visited were depriving them of the chance to graze in fields in the summer, as well as winter.

The UK has 1.9 million dairy cows and like across the world with fierce pricing competition, the number of dairy farms has dropped by two-thirds over the past decade, to around 9,500. The UK now faces the questions what will happen with Brexit with dairy-production in price wars and animal and environmental standards. The UK public has campaigned to attempt to keep the mega-dairy out of England but investigations reveal there are at least 21 mega-farms with over 700 dairy cows per farm.

Research conducted by DEFRA said that only 30 percent of the farms thought they were traditional pasture-based dairy farms.

CHINA

China is now the world’s leading importer of milk, as well as its fourth-largest producer.

12 million dairy cows.

There is a mega-dairy in the north-East of China that is as big as Portugal. It is the worlds largest dairy with over 100,000 cows.

-Large amounts of cow manure resulting in brown stinking water were running off into streams and used veterinary drug packaging were littering the surrounding grounds

-The cows are milked three times a day for an 8min cycle on a rotary system.

The Chinese government is promoting a shift away from village farms and giving subsidies and free land to factory farms like Mudanjiang’s Mega farm.



INDIA

India is the world's largest producer and consumer of dairy. Since 2004 the government passed a law banning the slaughter of any cow but this does not mean there is not an issue with animal welfare throughout the country.

40 million dairy cows.

70 million farmers earn a livelihood through dairying - not only with cows, but also buffalo. While the mega-dairy is not the trend in India, there has been a few smaller scale ‘mega-dairies’ operating with 100 cows per herd.

Due to cows being considered sacred in India and more farmers are swapping cows for buffalo. They already provide India with half the milk. Their “output” of 5.2 litres of milk a day is about a quarter less than what the country’s Holstein-cross cows average, and it’s much less than the 28 -40 litres yielded by cows overseas. (During peak lactation, a high-yielding cow may produce as much as 60 litres per day)

https://www.voiceless.org.au/our-approach/research-and-publications/the-life-of-the-dairy-cow

https://www.dairyaustralia.com.au/industry/farm-facts/cows-and-farms

https://www.rspca.org.au/campaigns/dairy-cows

https://sustainabletable.org.au/all-things-ethical-eating/dairy-diaries/#section-13

ttp://www.dairyaustralia.com.au/~/media/Documents/Animal%20management/Feed%20and%20nutrition/Feeding%20Systems%20latest/Aus%20five%20main%20feeding%20systems.pdf

https://www.milkbusiness.com/article/licensed-dairy-farm-numbers-drop-to-just-over-40000

https://www.nbcnews.com/news/us-news/best-advice-u-s-dairy-farmers-sell-out-fast-you-n887941

https://www.ciwf.org.uk/farm-animals/cows/dairy-cows/

https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/the-controversial-mega-dairies-that-alarm-campaigners-and-divide-a-struggling-sector-of-british-a6744511.html

https://www.sixthtone.com/news/1001417/spilled-milk-how-china-failed-its-dairy-farmers

http://www.fao.org/fileadmin/templates/est/COMM_MARKETS_MONITORING/Dairy/Documents/FO_Dairy_Nov17.pdf

http://fiapo.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/National-Dairy-Report-2017.pdf

Global environmental costs of China’s thirst for milk.” Global Change Biology. 2018.

COWS for LEATHER

Cows are not the only animal used for leather production, but they are the main one.

Once the hide are removed from the dead animals, they are then tanned to stop them from decaying. 90% of tanning is done with Chrome around the world today, rather than vegetable.

The top five countries for tanning are Brazil, China, India, Italy and Russia.

Overall, the Chinese leather industry produces nearly 4 billion square feet of leather per year - more than double the next highest producer. 

There is the detrimental environmental impact raising cows has, (see above) and there is also a major issue with tanning. Scientific America says the tanning industry is one of the top ten pollutants in the world today.

Much of the leather is now tanned in developing countries, such as India and China, because of cost savings. However both China and India both have substandard environmental and humanitarian conditions in these factories. Workers in them are paid extremely low wage and suffer from respiratory infections, skin diseases, cancer, eye problems and sterility as well as there being a much higher rate of birth defects in the children of the workers.

The rivers around the tanneries are subjected to constant flux of waste from the tanneries, where consistently they are not being treated correctly. This means toxic byproducts, such as chromium, sodium sulphide, lime, dyes and animal proteins etc are washed into the water ways that are lifelines to the populations that surround them. Many of these rivers are officially “dead,” turned into toxic sludge and unable to support any marine life. Locals have no choice but to bath with this water. It also then leaks into water tables and poisons surrounding farmland.

Some of the two worst examples are in the area of Hazaribagh in Bangladesh and the Chinese state of Zinji.

New environmental standards and regulations were stated a few years ago, but this has still not been translated into many of the factories in China and India.

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/23646324_The_global_leather_value_chain_the_industries_the_main_actors_and_prospects_for_upgrading_in_LDCs

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/260321285_Environmental_Impacts_of_Tanning_and_Leather_Products_Manufacturing_Industry_in_NWFP_Pakistan

https://www.nationalgeographic.com/photography/proof/2014/08/06/industry-on-the-banks-deep-inside-kanpurs-tanneries/

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/223935120_The_chromium_issue_in_soils_of_the_leather_tannery_district_in_Italy


sheep

sheep

The meat from sheep is most widely consumed from babies - lamb. They are killed at an average of 6 months old, sheep live to approximately 14 years old in nature.

Australia has a population of approximately 70 million sheep (2018). This number has more than halved in the last 30 years ago -in 1990 we had 170 million sheep. This is due to a number of factors including a move to cropping instead, volatile meat and wool prices and harsh droughts.

Australia is the world largest exporter of sheep meat, and is the world’s second largest producer of lamb and mutton. Australia slaughters 22.9 million lambs per year on average.

Sheep being transported to slaughter can have their water supply cut off for 48 hours (sheep over 4 months old) or 28 hours (lambs under 4 months old) at a time.

Fatality of lambs being born in winter is as high as 10-15 million per year, as they freeze to death in the first few days after birth from exposure to cold weather, usually at night, or a lack of shelter and food. Some are abandoned by their mothers; others are too small to survive, usually when born a twin or triplet.

Other welfare issues below are being called to change by many fashion houses listening to rising consumer demands for better animal welfare standard and at the minimum pain relief. This is still not routine though.

Tail docking

Lambs are born with a long tail but are put in a restraint device and have their tail cut off with a hot bald or knife. On some farms, lambs will instead have a rubber ring tightened around their tail so that it will wither and drop off.

Mulesing

To manage the flystrike, farmers have been mulesing for years, where the skin is sliced from the buttocks of lambs without anaesthetic to produce a scar free of wool, faecal/urine stains, and skin wrinkles. 

Mulesing involves cutting a crescent-shaped slice of skin from each side of the buttock area; the usual cut on each side is 5 - 7cm in width and extends slightly less than half way from the anus to the hock of the back leg in length.

“Flystrike” is a major problem for sheep in the Australian wool industry. Blowflies lay their eggs on the skin of the sheep and then they hatch into larvae, which feed on the sheep’s tissue, producing inflammation, general systemic toxaemia, and even death.

Australian Wool Innovation (AWI), agreed in 2004 that it would, by 2010, phase out the practice of mulesing. However in 2009 announced it would be reneging on this promise of working to a deadline. There has been no new deadline set, but consumer demand is growing.

For the past few years, sheep producers have been encouraged to use a local anaesthetic when carrying out the process after great pressure from animal welfare groups and high-end brands buying their wool. But it is not mandatory and it is self-regulated, with statistics from the wool industry now saying 21% of wool comes from sheep mulesed with pain relief - 80% without any form of anisethic . The industry has also been looking into alternatives to mulesing, those that have been experimenting have had good results.
The percentage of wool from non-mulesed sheep made up just over 10 per cent of Australia's entire export clip this season (2018)

These include:

  • Choosing genetically proven to produce a bare area around the back end. The trait is highly heritable, which means most of the offspring will end up having a smaller risk of getting flystrike - but this of course takes time to be seen through generations of sheep.

  • Changing the time of shearing, so sheep have the least amount of wool when there is the highest risk of flystrike, usually in summer

  • “Crutching” more regularly to remove the wool around the back end of the sheep and decrease the chance of providing that wet wool environment. 

  • Application of chemicals can also keep flies at bay for as long as 12 weeks.


Castration

During 'surgical' castration, the bottom of the lamb's scrotum is cut, his testicles are pushed out and cut off. Or a rubber band is placed around them.

Normally this is done with no pain relief.



Sheep farming also causes significant land degradation and erosion, like all grazing of hard-hooved animals. An issue sheep farmers and the sheep face in Australia is the severe droughts they suffer cyclicly such as in 2018 when a huge percentage had to be slaughtered “before they were not correctly finished” because of malnourishment - they were starving.

Due to the drought conditions, sheep feedlots are increasingly popular in Australia. Like the beef feedlots, this is where they “finish” the lambs by keeping them in a confined space with intensive grain feeding, where they will not graze but be fed a mix of around 60% grain and 40% roughage. The number is steadily on the increase and after countless hours attempting to find the percentage of lambs finished in feedlots, I have had no luck… yet there are many many examples of them. They are given 1 meter squared per lamb and generally 500 sheep per pen. If more than 4000 sheep they must have 5 square metres each and thousands to tens of thousands per farm.

Like beef feedlots, you have then the issues of "‘full ration feeding’ and animal health issues associated with confined feeding which as salmonella, acidosis, (15% of deaths) coccidiosis, pulpy kidney, grain poisoning and worms. As well as the environmental impact of having to deal with excessive excrement from having many animals in a condensed space.

New Zealand

New Zealand has around 27 million sheep and killing approximately 19 million lambs per year. NZ export 88% of the lambs they kill.

They banned mulesing due to animal welfare concerns.

IN 2003 NZ also banned the live sheep trade after Saudi Arabia rejected a shipment of 57,000 sheep on board the MV Cormo Express.

However they still allow the export of animals for breeding purposes. According to the Ministry of Primary Industries, in 2017 the country exported more than 8 million live animals overseas including 8.5 million day-old chicks (about 5.7 million of which are incubated eggs ready for hatching), 27,306 live cattle for breeding and more than 15,000 kilograms of bees.

Of this, just 123 head of sheep were exported from New Zealand throughout 2017.

Methane (CH4) is the largest contributor to New Zealand's national inventory of greenhouse gas emissions, and it also comprises 45% of all emissions in terms of global warming potential. Per capita, New Zealand has the largest methane emission rate (0.6 t per person per year)—six times the global average. The methane comes primarily from enteric fermentation in ruminant livestock, and sheep are the greatest single source.


CHINA

China has the largest sheep flock 175 million and produces 1/3 of the world’s sheep meat. Yet it is still the number one importer of sheep meat.

In northern China, overgrazing and over-farming has lead to the loss of nearly a million acres (about 400,000 hectares) of grassland each year to desert. Like the rest of the farming movement in China, sheep farming has moved significantly indoors into large industrial sheds - factory farming - feedlots.

The US slaughter around 2.2 million sheep per year.  



Lamb and Sheepskins and Wool

Sheep are breed and grown for both their meat and their wool.

Australia is the largest producer of wool. We are also the only country that performs mulesing to sheep. More than 70% of the sheep in Australia are pure-bred Merinos, with other breeds and crossbreds making up the remainder. Merino sheep are used for both their wool and meat. Wool produced from Merino sheep is finer than wool produced from other breeds, and is in more demand for fashion currently.

A fully-grown Merino ram in a high-rainfall area can produce about 4–10 kilograms of wool each year, this is the amount to make approximately five average men’s business suits.
The percentage of wool from non-mulesed sheep made up just over 10 per cent of Australia's entire export clip this season (2018)

There are approximately 26,000 wool growers in Australia. Of these, approximately 3,100 produce some non-mulesed wool.

Sheepskin

A sheep/lamb skin is when the hide - the skin - is removed and tanned with the wool intact. These are used for prams, rugs, furniture, fashion, Ugg boots etc. Ninety per cent of sheepskins produced in Australia export to China.

https://www.wool.com/market-intelligence/sheep-numbers-by-state/

https://www.mla.com.au/globalassets/mla-corporate/prices--markets/documents/trends--analysis/fast-facts--maps/mla_sheep-fast-facts-2017_final.pdf

https://www.theland.com.au/story/5210003/automated-feedlots-the-next-big-thing-in-sheep/

http://agriculture.vic.gov.au/agriculture/livestock/sheep/feeding-and-nutrition/feedlotting-lambs

https://www.theaustralian.com.au/news/nation/end-to-the-silence-about-15-million-dead-lambs/news-story/dcfd08eddf63e33380a5f26004c596bf

https://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0020/193313/Feedlotting-lambs.pdf

https://www.fginsight.com/vip/vip/finishing-lambs-us-style-19194

https://www.abc.net.au/news/rural/2018-05-08/how-new-zealand-banned-live-export-trading/9733146

https://www.agric.wa.gov.au/livestock-parasites/managing-non-mulesed-sheep?page=0%2C3

https://www.landcareresearch.co.nz/science/greenhouse-gases/agricultural-greenhouse-gases/methane-emissions

https://www.abc.net.au/news/2018-03-10/wool-buyers-push-for-more-action-against-sheep-mulesing/9526650

https://www.abc.net.au/news/rural/2017-08-09/italian-buyers-frustrated-by-ongoing-mulesed-wool-problem/8744944

https://www.learnaboutwool.com/globalassets/law/resources/factsheets/secondary/gd0317-secondary-fact-sheet_d1_v4.pdf

https://newmerino.com.au/mulesing-statistics/

https://newmerino.com.au/mulesing-statistics/

Live Sheep Export

Every year, around three million live animals are exported from Australia for slaughter overseas. The majority of these are sheep. The rest are mostly cattle.

1.7 million sheep were exported live to eight countries, mostly in the Middle East in 2017. 

They are transported on vessels that carry up to 85000 sheep. Stocking densities allowed by Australian Standards for the Export of Livestock (ASEL) are much higher than any land-based feedlot or intensive housing system.

Once on board an export vessel, animals can be confined with no space, no ventilation and in filth and extremely high temperatures for up to 5 weeks.

Over the years, more than 3 million Australian animals have died, often horrifically.

Before being transported, sheep are transferred from a pasture-based diet to unnatural concentrated pellets, which some sheep understandably reject. These sheep that don’t take to this new diet can develop salmonellosis and die, accounting for around half of sheep mortalities.

High temperatures and poor ventilation can contribute to fatal heat stroke. Trapped in what is essentially a ‘giant oven’, extremely heat stressed animals collapse before  literally being cooked alive. Other heat stressed sheep may die slowly over the following days. Those who survive the heat stress, will continue to suffer in the hot mix of excretment that is now littered with the decaying bodies of their dead companions.

More than 100,000 litres of urine and faeces accumulates on a typical live export ship every day sheep are on board. The ship won’t be ‘washed out’ until after they’ve disembarked. Animal waste generates ammonia gas and with tens of thousands of animals excreting in a confined space for up to 5 weeks, there are high ammonia concentrations on board vessels. This irritates the animal’s eyes, nasal cavities and respiratory tracts, resulting in crying, coughing and nasal discharge.

  • In 2013, more than 4,000 Australian sheep died on board the Bader III as temperatures in the Gulf soared — turning the ship they were traveling on into a floating oven. Their hearts race as they gasp for oxygen.

  • The deadliest sheep voyage of the past 10 years departed Adelaide with 44,713 sheep on board on August 2013, picking up another 30,795 sheep in Fremantle five days later.
    Heat stress claimed 4,050 sheep in a single day as the wet bulb temperature reached 38C when the ship arrived in Qatar.

  • The voyage of the Awassi shown in Ullah’s footage left Fremantle on 1 August 2017 with 63,804 sheep on board for Qatar, Kuwait and the United Arab Emirates. More than 2,400 sheep, or 3.76% of the total load, died on route, above the mandatory reportable mortality rate of 2%.

  • 20,000 Australian sheep were brutally massacred in Pakistan in 2012. One by one they were stabbed, clubbed and buried alive. Some still alive hours later.

  •  61 regulation breaches were documented in only 3 nights in Indonesia – including extreme cruelty to cattle, who were being cut up while still alive. 

  • In Kuwait it has been documented again and again that sheep are illegally sold at a notoriously cruel market with the animals panting in distress during 50 degree days, stuffed into car boots, dragged onto concrete slabs, into private residences and local abattoirs – all to face cruel un-stunned slaughter.

  • In August 2012 an Australian ship carrying approximately 22,000 sheep was blocked from unloading in Kuwait and Bahrain after local authorities claimed that the animals had scabby mouth disease. The sheep had already been at sea for 33 days and were left on board for almost two weeks longer, suffering in temperatures of up to 38 degrees. Eventually the sheep were unloaded in Pakistan, where it was later reported that around 9,000 of the sheep had been killed on suspicion that they were diseased.

  • In Gaza, over a thousand more Australian cattle transferred from Israel to Gaza, despite some of the worst animal abuse ever being documented there on two previous occasions. Regulatory action in the form of a government order stating no animals are to be transferred to Gaza proven completely useless

Once livestock reach their port of destination the animals are outside the control of Australian law. The Australian Government cannot ensure that exported livestock are slaughtered humanely once they have left Australia. Despite claims by the government and industry that this system protects Australian animals, the reality is that Australian Government regulation does not have legal effect in foreign jurisdictions and the standards it attempts to impose do not reflect the expectations of the Australian public. For instance, stunning before slaughter is not a requirement for exported animals. Extensive evidence gathered from importing countries has shown inhumane slaughter and handling practices that would be contrary to Australian laws and standards.

At their destination, exported animals may spend several months at a feedlot for fattening, or may be transported directly to a slaughtering facility. Under Australian Government regulation the animals are not permitted to be sold to individual buyers, however, ‘leakages’ from approved supply chains occur regularly. Animals that are taken outside approved supply chains are exposed to even greater welfare risks. Evidence has shown that individual buyers in some countries will often transport sheep in car boots and on roof-racks in temperatures that may exceed 40°C. To prevent the sheep from moving their legs are tightly bound together with wire. Cattle have been documented travelling on the back of utility trucks with only a few ropes to prevent them falling off.

Sheep have been shown being herded into a slaughtering facility, and then dragged one by one to the slaughtering area where their throats are cut and they are left to bleed to death over a drain. In some importing countries, cattle have been shown to face even more horrific deaths. In slaughtering halls, they have had their tendons slashed and sometimes their eyes gouged in order to bring them down and, finally, they have their throats cut, often with blunt knives requiring multiple cuts, and are left to bleed to death. Cattle and sheep destined for ‘home slaughter’ are no better off and may face equally cruel slaughter methods.

In 2011, Australia suspended its live trade to Indonesia for six months after ABC TV 4 Corners investigation showed graphic footage of animals being great and widely mistreated.

Legislation to phase out live sheep exports within five years and end the trade to the Middle East during the northern summer passed the Senate but in October 2018.

This bill to ban live sheep export failed to pass the Upper House because the Morrison government stepped in and stopped the bill from even being debated in Parliament.

Animals Australia took the Federal Government to court, to establish that the decision to ship 58,000 sheep into the furnace of the Middle East’s summer was unlawful, but before they even got to trial, the Federal government conceded that the animals were exported unlawfully BUT not for the same reason… court documents showed that the Department of Agriculture made a legal error in granting the permit. This means the Department of Agriculture, already under investigation for regulatory failures) permitted these sheep to be exported without legal authority or a valid lawful export permit.

What has been confirmed is that there will be no trade of live sheep to the Middle East for three months from June 1, 2019 to avoid the worst of the heat - where temperatures are on average over 35 degrees.

If (hopefully when) the livestock trade is shut down, Australian Meat Industry Council chief executive Patrick Hutchinson said it was possible for them to be processed - slaughtered - here.

In 2018 the licence of Australia’s biggest exporter, Emanuel Exports, was suspended “pending a full review of the company’s response to a show-cause notice” as to why its licence should not be cancelled.

Israel has been in support of stopping the trade due to animal welfare issues, they introduced a bill in 2018, at the same time, 228 lawyers in Israel signed a petition for live shipments to cease and 60 rabbis also condemned live exports. This is continuing to be debated there.

A 2012 survey found that 78 per cent of Australians believed live exports were cruel and 74 per cent were more likely to vote for a political candidate who promised to end live animal export.

LABOR has committed to ending Live Export if voted in May.
In 2003 NZ also banned the live sheep trade after Saudi Arabia rejected a shipment of 57,000 sheep on board the MV Cormo Express.

https://www.voiceless.org.au/content/live-export-where-do-parties-stand#footnote5_r3tkc14
https://kb.rspca.org.au/why-is-the-rspca-opposed-to-the-live-export-trade_517.html
https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/live-exports

https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2018/sep/10/live-exports-ban-coalition-pressured-to-allow-lower-house-vote-after-bill-passes-senate

https://www.voiceless.org.au/hot-topics/live-export

https://www.animalsaustralia.org/features/whats-it-like-on-a-live-export-ship.php

https://www.9now.com.au/60-minutes/2018/extras/latest/april/liam-bartlett-sheep-ships-and-videotape

https://www.abc.net.au/4corners/a-bloody-business---2011/2841918

https://www.abc.net.au/4corners/another-bloody-business/4354700


TURKEYS

TURKEYS


90% of commercial turkey meat in Australia and around the world is raised in factory farms.

Inghams Enterprises Pty Ltd is the largest turkey producer in Australia, followed by Bartter which now markets Steggles. On average, five million turkeys are killed annually in Australia for meat. 

Worldwide, over 650 million turkeys are slaughtered each year for meat.

Turkeys are crowded in sheds with 15,000 -25,000, forced to live in a space roughly the size of an A3 sheet of paper. Living on a litter of rice hulls, straw or wood shavings, these sheds are not cleaned until the turkeys are sent to slaughter, up to 3 months from the time they arrive.

They have their beaks ‘trimmed’ with hot blades, as like the chickens kept in sheds, the frustration the turkeys experience unable to fulfil basic instincts while living in overcrowded areas, leads to fighting. This is not needed on free-range pasture raised farms. Beak trimming has been banned in some European countries such as Norway, Finland and Sweden but the UK, US and Australia still allow it to continue.

Toe removal is also performed on male breeding birds which can result in open wounds, blood loss and pain.

Desnooding is practiced to minimalise cannibalism. This is where the long fleshy appendage extending from the front of a turkey's head over its upper back is removed with an instrument or pulled off.

Turkeys have been genetically modified to gain weight rapidly. In nature, these birds can run and fly, but on factory farms, most struggle to walk under the weight of their unnaturally heavy breasts. This rapid growth puts enormous pressure on their heart and immature skeleton. They suffer from leg weakness, joint problems and bone fractures.

The abundance of faeces and inadequate air ventilation in the sheds produces a proliferation of ammonia, which causes burns, respiratory infections, ulcerated feet and irritated eyes.

They are routinely fed antibiotics for both accelerated growth and because disease is rife in these conditions, killing off 10% of the turkeys in 3 months before they even reach the slaughterhouse. 

The lack of space and confinement means they are unable to perform any natural instincts, even the basic of perching. They don’t get to see the sun or breathe fresh air. Lighting is orchestrated to alter normal sleeping and eating sequences, principally to multiply the birds’ consumption and limit movement. These methods, however, wreak havoc on the functioning of the body and result in a multitude of diseases and problems.

There are two main commercial breeds of turkey in Australia, the Nicholas White and the Hybrid. The "genetic material" of these breeds is imported from the US and Canada. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, without artificial insemination performed by humans, this variety of bird would become extinct in just one generation. This is because they can not reproduce without intervention.

The male turkeys are 'milked'. A worker holds down the turkey in a bent-over position and then grabs the turkey's penis, stroking and masturbating it until it ejaculates. The semen is collected, laced with extenders (a liquid to preserve fertilising ability) and antibiotics, and then injected via syringe into the female turkey.

This is repeated once or twice a week until the breeder turkeys are slaughtered at one year of age.  Australian prohibits sexual contact with animals but farm animals are excluded from these laws because sexual contact is needed for artificial insemination procedures. These turkeys are held on separate breeder farms with each farm holding up to 7000 hens. These turkeys are called layers and are kept in shed with flocks of up to 3000.

All factory farmed turkeys never meet their mothers. Whereas, naturally, the mother turkey would communicate with her chicks while they are in the egg and following their birth. In intensive turkey farming, , fertile eggs are transferred to the hatchery. This means that the chicks are denied their natural start in life.

After 28 days in an incubating cabinet the poults are hatched. At a day old the turkey chicks are transported to growing sheds with up to 25,000 chicks the same age. The lighting is dim and the heat is kept permanently high. Many chicks die from heat, stress, heart attack, bullying, or  starvation since many are unable to find the food and water points without the guidance of their mothers.



The UK kills 14 million turkeys per year.

The USA produces 46% of the worlds turkey meat. In 2015 they experienced an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza which affected the turkey industry poorly for obvious reasons, including the 7.5 million turkeys who had to be killed to stop the spread. Chile is now the biggest turkey importer to China.

http://www.animalwelfarestandards.net.au/files/2015/07/Public-Cons-Version-Poultry-beak-trimming-support-paper-Oct-16.pdf

http://www.abc.net.au/tv/programs/landline/old-site/content/2010/s3371298.htm

http://www.animalliberation.org.au/turkey-farming

http://agriculture.vic.gov.au/agriculture/animal-health-and-welfare/animal-welfare/animal-welfare-legislation/victorian-codes-of-practice-for-animal-welfare/code-of-accepted-farming-practice-for-the-welfare-of-poultry

https://www.livescience.com/3080-science-build-turkey.html

https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/741062/AUK-2017-18sep18.pdf

http://www.harvestpublicmedia.org/post/bird-flu-strengthens-china-midwest-farmers-prepare-looking-past-lessons

Eating Animals, Johnathan Safran Foer


fishes

fishes

“What we casually refer to as “fish” is in fact a collection of animals of fabulous diversity. According to Fishbase - the largest and most often consulted online database on fishes - 33,249 species, in 564 families and 64 orders, had been described as of January 2016. Thats more than the combined total of all mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians. When we refer to “fish” we are referring to 60% of all the known species on Earth with backbones.” Jonathan Balcombe


KANGAROOS

KANGAROOS





Kangaroos are native only to Australia. They are our icon, used to represent sports teams, our airline, businesses and more, but we also shoot millions of them every year.

Australia has slaughtered over 31.5 million kangaroos in 10 years, which makes it the largest killing of land-based wildlife in the world.

There are around 50 species of kangaroos, but when the population is calculated, the number is generally totalled together, which influences the indication of how many of each species there actually are.

The four larger species are killed by both ‘harvesters’ for the kangaroo industry and farmers as pests, and are the Red kangaroo, Eastern and Western Grey kangaroo and the Common Wallaroo.

Of 58 species of kangaroos that were in Australia at European settlement, eight are now extinct and a further 14 are threatened with extinction. The loss of these species is part of a wave of extinction that has seen at least 29 species from Australia’s unique mammal fauna disappear forever. Many of these species were thought to be able to sustain harvests - but didn’t. 

Australia already has the world's worst record for wildlife extinctions, with 23 birds, 78 frogs, and 27 mammal species (including kangaroos) having vanished forever since Western settlement.

Victoria actually stopped commercial shooting in 1982 because 85 per cent of the state had less than one kangaroo per square kilometre. The commercial kangaroo industry is active in four of the mainland states: New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia and Western Australia.

There has been a push in Victoria to reopen the harvest of kangaroos there, this push coincided with the minister of Agriculture being given the care of “Wildlife”, perhaps a conflict of interest?


The four species of kangaroos are killed for two reasons, firstly because farmers find them to be a pest even though numerous government studies have concluded that they do not compete for food or water with stock or cropping, unless in extreme drought conditions. Just a few of these include the six year study found only slight evidence of competition between sheep and kangaroos in times of extreme drought (Edwards et al. 1995; 1996). Another study also concluded that Red Kangaroos have little or no impact on either the body mass or reproductive output of sheep or the growth and survivorship of lambs. (McLeod 1996) One sheep consumes as much as 5 kangaroos, one cow as much as 12 kangaroos – cited in Olsen & Low 2006.

Considering over 53 % of Australia (81% of Queensland) is used as agricultural land, this does not leave too much space for Australia’s wildlife to live without being on the land of farmers. Add the pressure of urbanisation and roads, kangaroos have lost most land that they are considered welcome to be on.

Normally in NSW and still in other states, farmers legally are required to obtain a permit to kill kangaroos on their land. However there is no policing occurring and no previous legal action taken where farmers have killed kangaroos with out these permits. Australia’s farming land is vast and hard to manage considering this.

NSW introduced new laws in 2018 to permit farmers to kill kangaroos after just an email or a phone call. They do not need to “tag” the carcasses of kangaroos - which was the manner they were managed, despite there being many loop holes in even this protocol.

Kanagroos, “protected wildlife,” are also killed for the kangaroo meat industry, which supplies meat to Australia and exports overseas.

In 2001, 75% of the kangaroos slaughtered for meat, went to pet food. The industry has been marketing heavily to promote it for human consumption.

The campaign is that kangaroos are the environmentally friendly option for meat due to the reasons that kangaroos do not put extra pressure on the land or water, as cattle and sheep do. This is true. The campaign also is how they get to live a life of freedom, not caged like in factory farms. This is also true.

However if every person in Australia (26 million) had a kangaroo steak, once per week, we would run out of kangaroos in a year or two. Causing the extinction of a wild animal would not be classified as environmental.

To provide Australians only one small portion of kangaroo meat per week, 22 million kangaroos would have to "harvested" a year. The total population of kangaroos would need to be 151 million to support this offtake. This is more than five times the 30-year average population of 27 million, to provide one serving of meat per Australian a week.

Kangaroos can not be farmed. They have the ability to stop a pregnancy when stressed - which is what they do when kept in captivity. They also develop capture myopathy: a syndrome of complex primary and secondary pathological changes in many organs, particularly in skeletal and cardiac muscle that may: i. be precipitated by prolonged muscular exertion, e.g. pursuit by predators or during capture and restraint; ii. occur as a result of fear and anxiety without overt physical activity, e.g. during close confinement or placement in an unfamiliar environment; and iii. cause acute death or lead to chronic debility.



Shooters who kill the kangaroos are called harvesters. They used to kill both female and make kangaroos for the meat and skin industry.

When harvesters shot the female kangaroos, they would either bash the joey over the head to kill them, or leave them to die a slow death of starvation and exposure. This happened to over 500 million baby kangaroos per year. When the international population found out about this, there was an outcry. Some countries would not import the meat due to this. To combat the issue, a couple of years ago the Kanagroo industry has made it a ‘male-only’ kill.

The issue with this is:

  1. If the harvester shoots a female kangaroo, they leave them there to die and no one will know due to the impossibility of monitoring in such vast isolated locations.

  2. Kangaroos live in mob structures. The males spend their lives preening and grooming themselves to attempt to become the alpha male. The alpha male gets to impregnate all the females for a few years until challenged by the next alpha male who wins. The alpha is the strongest, biggest and fittest male in the mob. Nature has evolved this way very deliberately to pass down the stonrgest genes to the future generations, to help the survival of the kangaroo in the harsh Australian climate and to hep protect them against epidemics (think of the Tassie devil, where one disease will cause a whole species to become extinct)

    Now the harvest is killing only males, are targeting the large ones for the most price for the meat, they are killing off the alpha males. The ones who pass down the strong genes. Numerous observations from people in the field show that this is impacting the size already of the Kanagroo and will impact what the kangaroo looks like in the future. They will become smaller and weaker as we remove the strongest, healthiest genes from the gene pool. Removing the alpha males is also destroying the natural regulation of the mob strucute.

In notes taken by Bev Selway at a South Australian Kangaroo Management Meeting in November 2001, (imagine now!) questions were raised about the small sizes of kangaroos being killed. In response the participants noted that “there are not many big 'roos left, just this garbage stuff", another that "To see a big kangaroo is a rarity". Also noted were comments that "If you keep shooting the big stuff, you only have runts” and “ If you keep this up you will only be left with runts". More comments included " We are not taking a cull, we are harvesting the best" and "Some skins we get are the size of handkerchiefs"

 For example the Red kangaroo in 1960 average age was 12 and 35kg now it is 2 years old and 18kg.

Kangaroos are shot in the wild, in often extremely remote locations and at night, when they are most active. Without independent oversight, issues of non-compliance, welfare and potential cruelty are not able to be addressed. While shooters are required by Commercial and Non-Commercial Codes of Practice to aim to shoot a kangaroo in the brain and therefore achieve an instantaneous death, studies show this is not the case, with some data collected even indicating the figure of body shots being as high as 40% which would mean the Kanagroo suffered before dying.

Research by the RSPCA in Australia and Animal Liberation NSW has suggested that around 120,000 kangaroos a year are inhumanely killed but the number could be much higher (according to Thinkk [University of Technology Sydney] up to a million), as there is no one there to monitor the many kangaroos shot – but not killed outright – that will escape into the bush to die a slow, painful death. Dr John Auty, veterinary scientist and former Chief Agronomistsays: "Shooters often have a thorough contempt for the law. They commit cruelty on a regular basis." 

A  former commercial kangaroo shooter decribes a shoot: "The mouth of a kangaroo can be blown off and the kangaroo can escape to die of shock and starvation. Forearms can be blown off, as can ears, eyes and noses. Stomachs can be hit expelling the contents with the kangaroo still alive. Backbones can be pulverized to an unrecognisable state etc. Hind legs can be shattered with the kangaroo desperately trying to get away on the other or without the use of either. To deny that this goes on is just an exercise in attempting to fool the public."14





To count the population of the Kanagroos in Australia, a huge country, many guesses come into play.

While on the news, kangaroos are labelled to be in “plague proportions”, many scientists have indicated that in areas of harvesting, entire local populations are completely gone. This is even though the photos in the press show big mobs gathering into particular areas during droughts, as they come to find food, making it appear there is an abundance of them. Yet, since 2001 there has been an overall drop of 12,577,598 kangaroos in the areas where they are hunted (according to the Australian Government's own figures).

Analysis of NSW (New South Wales) government count data obtained under FOI by scientist Ray Mjadwesch showed up to 64% of NSW western survey transects are returning zero counts of kangaroos.

Also recorded by the Government is the entire kangaroo population halving in years when there are significant droughts.  

In Western Australia alone, Red Kangaroo estimates showed the population to be 638 185 in 2016, the lowest since 1981. In 2001 the estimate was 2,742100, showing a serious significant decrease, especially when considering correction factors have increased.

The only places kangaroos are safe from persecution of the cull are in the 8% of the state that are national parks.





Female kangaroos often have a joey either at foot or in the pouch. While this gives the illusion they breed quickly, reports confirm that up to 70% of joeys do not survive the first year of life. It takes about 18 months for a joey to be fully weaned. Thus a kangaroo can raise only one joey to independence per year and of these only 30% will survive.

Studies have found that during drought up to 100 per cent juvenile mortality can occur, with up to 40 to 60 per cent adult mortality. Flooding rains also cause mass or epidemic mortality events in kangaroos, with a lack of funding ensuring the causes remain only hypothesised, including the possibility of toxoplasmosis-a zoonotic disease ever present in wild kangaroo populations and a recognised health risk to human consumers. As an example, in 1998 some 300,000 counted kangaroos died suddenly over two weeks in a 30,000 square kilometre area in south-western Queensland and north-western New South Wales.

The New South Wales government's own data reveals that kangaroo numbers have fallen by up to 90 per cent in some individual New South Wales harvest zones.

Two reports to the New South Wales Department of Environment and Climate Change amplify concern about kangaroo populations. One report-'Kangaroo monitoring: design & analysis of the Northern Tablelands region helicopter survey'-appears to have been removed from the internet. The other report is 'Kangaroo monitoring: Hunter and Central Tablelands commercial harvest zones design and analysis of helicopter survey.' The work shows that in one case 26 actual, counted kangaroos were multiplied by 1,456 to become a final population of over 37,000 animals in the Armidale region. That occurred in 2007. In the central tablelands, 1,362 actual, counted eastern greys were extrapolated into a population of 535,600.

This occurs because of their methodology in counting popualtions. When you look at the actual numbers of population counts over the last 10 years, it shows correction factors have continued to increase. This gives the impression that the kangaroo population is increasing but if you keep the correction factors the same across all population counts, the figures show that kangaroo numbers are actually they are decreasing.  

“The number of transects has often doubled from one survey session to the next. Transect widths have been narrowed without a corresponding lowering of detection factors. Transects overfly national parks and other non-shooting areas, with those numbers applied to surrounding empty landscapes. For example, roughly half the transects in the central tablelands shooting zone overfly national parks and other non-shooting kangaroo habitat. Those non-shooting areas are removed from the equation to further inflate extrapolated densities of empty landscapes. Transects that continually show no kangaroos over regional landscapes have been dumped. This has happened for parts of western New South Wales. Finally, correction or detection factors, a number by which actual, counted numbers are multiplied, are continually increased. This can result in the multiplying of actual counts by up to 300 to 500 per cent. So this flawed methodology is how we see biologically impossible jumps in the number of kangaroos-the so-called population explosions.

In the Bourke kangaroo management zone, the latest survey report asserts that from 2011 to 2012, a year bookended by drought in rural New South Wales, kangaroo populations apparently increased by 249 per cent. Yet this nonsense of a population growth rate of 249 per cent in one year has not been challenged. Growth rates of 50 per cent or more are regularly reported by the department's consultants, but that would require true male-female parity, every female successfully raising young to independence and no animals at all dying for 12 months.” Lee Rhiannon, GREENS





In 2009 Russia banned the importation of kangaroo meat after consistent bacterial E.Coli contamination and human safety fears. Russia was the biggest importer, taking 70% of kangaroo meat and the Australian Government invested at least $400,000 to attempt to get the market open again with no luck. More recent government testing also found violations of health and safety regulations.

Canada has also banned the importation of kangaroo meat. From June 2018 kangaroo meat has been removed from all major UK supermarkets.

California banned kangaroo goods again in 2015, despite the department of agriculture paid $143,000 to the Kangaroo Industry Association of Australia to pay US firm Manatt, Phelps and Phillips to lobby senate members.

The Food Empowerment Project lodged an official complaint, claiming the Australian government did not properly register the lobbying. 

The biggest importers currently are Belgium, Germany and the Netherlands followed by South Africa. Yet the industry is focusing their efforts to get into China. China still has not approved kangaroo meat imports.

The head of the Kangaroo Industry, John Kelly, had an under-cover investigation into his personal possum meat business, Lenah Meats and it was aired by the ABC. The footage exposed cruelty in the slaughterhouse of terrified, bloodied possums being chased by workers across the killing floor. John Kelly took them to court as he said the filming was done by trespassers.

John Kelly was concerned about how they recorded primarily, it not what they filmed. For someone who is the president of an industry that is controlling the killing of millions of our protected wildlife, this raises alarm bells for animal welfare.

John Kelly has also received close to a million dollars of funding from the government through Lenah Consulting Research Group. Some argue that it is a conflict of interest to have the studies be done by someone with a vested interest in the industry. “RIRDC provided funds to the Lenah Consultancy project with aims to improve public perceptions of the environmental wisdom, sustainability and responsible controls of the kangaroo harvest, leading to improved product sales.”

The South Australian Government put in 1.8 million dollars towards the upgrade of the processing facility of Macro Meats, one of the largest Kanagroo processing plants in Australia, owned by Ray Borda. He was the largest individual sponsor in the greyhound racing. He pulled out sponsoring after the Four Corners expose but continues to own and race greyhounds.

All meat for Macro Meat must be driven to processing plant in SA near Adelaide. It can take 3 days of driving to get there from northen queensland. 

Kangaroo carcesses are now allowed to be in chillers for 14 days between shooting until they are processed. It used to be 7 days but in the investagtion leading up to 2009 many tags where found to be over 10 days old. Instead of addressing the issue of the hygiene of such long periods, the government lengthened the time that it was considered acceptable to 14 days.

Macro Meats exclusively supplies kangaroo meat to Australian supermarket chains.

Between $2.7 and $5.5 billion of the $71.3 billion tourism industry results from wildlife tourism, with kangaroos the most popular attraction. The Sustainable Tourism Cooperative Research Centre (STCRC) says 67.5 per cent of all international tourists want to see native animals, but most are disappointed not to see them in the wild, only in zoos.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VnGMN1sOtK0

http://animal-lib.org.au/images/stories/news/a_shot_in_the_dark.pdf

https://www.agrifutures.com.au/wp-content/uploads/publications/02-145.pdf

http://www.australiansocietyforkangaroos.com/not_so_green.html

http://s3.amazonaws.com/thinkk_production/resources/14/3417_UTS_ecological_report-updated.pdf

https://lee-rhiannon.greensmps.org.au/articles/adjournment-speech-kangaroos-iconic-species-risk

http://espace.library.uq.edu.au/view/UQ:9786/effect_of_drough.pdf

http://www.qld.gov.au/environment/assets/documents/plants-animals/macropods/quota-submission2015.pdf

http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/wildlife-trade/publications/national-codes-practice-humane-shooting-kangaroos-and-wallabies 

http://www.environment.gov.au/system/files/pages/ee20f301-6c6c-44e4-aa24-62a32d412de5/files/kangaroo-statistics-states-2018.pdf

https://kangaroothemovie.com

https://espace.library.uq.edu.au/data/UQ_9786/effect_of_drough.pdf?Expires=1551837649&Signature=XQv9lqTA2JNkDyDm4whFAiyQpswIUzCuyhEedEMn3~CSnvaQr5a2z8ngUJ6UTX40slZqvlo0RD-pwRa5sCK1xTfOUYtvpKP8ZycAjTl1Picq8QwY4KblCi~8NZvR0qtP7G8QftuE71lM~JQAW-ll26q5xwN0rarqXE5Z6C7kIB6edwXKRRdm4IMj3QeBpEHbkIcI6BqMTtriYX7OK8URvQpZAVVDHOex4QHuoYojnsKWYh2oO6s2CDc0uqLe8ojjik9h8stvgljkosKKvcPQ3d5w4d6CfZUD~QGWJNbpDTIaLzyvy7vR5WQgLXGHdvB5u~FZiQeyjQ4blWxn0iFDFw__&Key-Pair-Id=APKAJKNBJ4MJBJNC6NLQ


LABELS  INDUSTRIAL/FREE-RANGE/ORGANIC

LABELS

INDUSTRIAL/FREE-RANGE/ORGANIC

Industrialised farming uses chemical fertilisers made from fossil fuel derivatives that are used to add nutrients to the soil and may include the use of genetically modified (GM) seeds. While there may not be effects shown immediately from ingesting chemicals from herbicides, pesticides, antibiotics, hormones and other stimulants used in industrial vegetable and meat and dairy from factory farmed animals, the health risks come from when these are consumed, in small amounts over periods of time. Such as when we eat, three times a day, every day, for years - food that is grown with these chemicals.

A build-up of these toxic chemicals in the human body can lead to various diseases including cancers, as well as having neurological, mental and reproductive effects.

Industrialised agriculture tends to grow large mono-crops of single food varieties, which results in reducing biodiversity.

Organic farming nourishes the soil using organic fertilisers such as compost and controls invasive species through a mixture of companion planting, crop rotation, use of cover crops, natural pest control, hand weeding and animal grazing. In organic farming genetically modified seeds are not permitted and requires seeds to be organically grown. Organic farmers will often save seeds from previous crops and use rare and heirloom seed varieties, preserving the biodiversity of our food.

There are currently no laws in Australia to protect the use of the word ‘organic’ being used on product labels unless they are being exported. To be certain that you are purchasing truly organic, check it has been certified organic by one of the seven recognised certification bodies that are accredited and audited by the Australian Quarantine Inspection Service (AQIS). You can also buy ‘chemical-free’ fruit and vegetables from farmers markets, who may grow their food organically but do not want to certify - this requires getting to trust and know your farmers!

2018 Dirty dozen

These are the EWG’s 12 highest pesticide containing vegetables and fruits, found in 2018. They recommend buying these organic when possible. To learn more, check out EWG.

Strawberries, nectarines, spinach, apples, grapes, peaches, cherries, pears, tomoto, celery, potato, capsicum, peppers


In Australia, consumers may be misled by the fact that labelling legislation does not require producers to disclose information about farm production methods and there are numerous advertising terms often used, such as with eggs: caged, battery, barn-laid, free-range, open-range, range, grain-fed, free-to-roam, omega-3, bred free-range, organic and biodynamic. It makes it hard to navigate especially when packaging uses positive imagery and ambiguous terms like ‘farm fresh’ or ‘grown nature’s way’ to describe animal-derived food products. In this way, producers shield consumers from the realities of intensive farming practices. There are some labels that can only be used when certified certain standards have been met, but then there are others, that may give the impression of high standards, but are not…

Voiceless believes a nationally consistent approach to labelling legislation is the best approach for honest welfare labelling and consumer choice, including:

  • a mandatory labelling regime for all animal products clearly indicating the farm production method;

  • a uniform set of defined terms of farm production methods that are linked to uniform animal protection standards;

  • a regulatory monitoring and enforcement system (through consumer protection legislation) that ensures compliance with labelling laws;

  • an extensive public education campaign to assist consumers in understanding the various production standards and systems and the descriptions on the labels;

  • a ‘traffic light’ labelling system that differentiates between low, medium and high levels of animal welfare, also linked to the animal protection standards; and

  • the placement of photos or images of animals on the products that reflect the animal production system used.

Effective, enforceable and nationally consistent truth in labelling legislation is the only way that consumers can make truly informed choices.

WHAT WE DO KNOW:

Organic Meat and Dairy

Cows, hens and pigs on certified organic farms, including dairy farms, can only be fed certified organic feed. They are not permitted to be fed routine antibiotics or other medication.
Bobby calves on organic dairy farms are still taken from the mother and killed, unless a specific farm chooses not to.

Organic standards prohibit cows and sheep being confined to a feedlot – they must have continuous access to pasture.

Use of synthetic chemicals and fertilisers on pasture is prohibited.

Currently organic dairy has 10% of the market share in Australia. Organic dairy is the largest organic category in organic food world wide, with 19% of the global market in 2016.

CHICKENS

Australian Certified Organic is one of six government-approved organic certifying bodies who mandates that chickens always have access to the outdoors during daylight hours, no matter what their age. ACO caps outdoor stocking rates at 2500 to 4800 birds per hectare (the range depends on whether paddock rotation is used). In the shed, chickens can be stocked at 12 birds per square metre (compared to 20 birds per square meter in factory farms), and artificial lighting is capped at 16 hours per day, with at least eight hours of continuous dark per night.

Humane Choice offer higher welfare conditions than RSPCA Approved and FREPA, and are often as good as the ACO standard

FREPA accredited free range chickens are only let outdoors when they're 'fully feathered'. There's no cap on the amount of chickens per metre in the outdoors, and in the shed they are stocked at up to 15 birds per square metre. There is also no specified limit on the amount of artificial light used.

RSPCA Approved is not free range. This standard allows meat chickens to be raised intensively in sheds with stocking densities of up to 17 birds per square metre, and up to 20 hours per day of artificial lighting, bright enough to encourage foraging and activity. These conditions don't compare well with the other standards we looked at.

The RSPCA standard also requires perches and hay bales to encourage chickens to be active and build muscle strength. While this is an improvement on the Model Code of Practice conditions, it stipulates only 2.7 metres of perching per 1000 birds – that's a big squeeze.

PIGS

Free range pork labels

If you want your pork to have been born and raised outdoors (for their whole life) avoid 'bred free range' and 'outdoor bred' labels and instead look for products with one of these labels:

  • Humane Choice

  • Australian Certified organic

  • Australian Pork Certified Free Range

  • PROOF – Pasture Raised On Open Fields

Pigs raised under the Australian Certified Organic (ACO) standard are the most likely to have been raised free range with high welfare conditions. Unfortunately, certified organic pork is not listed as available from Coles or Woolworths on their online shopping sites, and isn't available at Aldi.

RSPCA Standards don't require pigs to have access to an outdoor or range area, but where they do have access, there are additional 'outdoor' standards. Yet the logo you'll see on packages in store is the same for either standard so it's not possible to work out if the animal was raised free range from this label.

Free-range EGGS

The new Free-range Labelling for Eggs in Australia allows misleading free-range egg labels; egg cartons will have to display stocking densities, but there’s no actual requirement for the chickens to go outside. Some free range standards allow for the chickens to be confined in sheds until they're fully feathered, packed in at stocking densities of up to 15 birds per square metre under almost unrestricted artificial lighting. The definition of free-range is now able to include hens raised in stressful large stocking densities of 10,000 hens per hectare. For a higher-welfare stocking density, 1,500 hens per hectare is a more acceptable limit, as previously capped by the poultry code.

The RSPCA does not require that farms provide hens with access to an outdoor range area to receive the RSPCA paw of approval.

The only way to be 100% certain that your eggs have come from hens that haven’t been fed a GM diet is by purchasing certified organic eggs 

According to a 2014 survey, 68% of free range egg consumers in Australia decide to purchase these products over cage eggs due to animal welfare reasons.

While cage eggs make up the highest market share in terms of volume of grocery eggs sold to consumers, free range eggs represent the highest value for the egg industry. As at 30 June 2016:

• Cage eggs accounted for 49.5% of grocery eggs sold, but were only valued at 37.3% of the market share.

• Free range eggs made up 40.7% of grocery eggs sold, but were valued at 50.6% of the market.

Consumer group CHOICE estimated that of the 696 million grocery eggs sold as free range in 2014, 213 million (over 30%) did not meet consumer expectations of what the label requires.

According to survey data, consumers expect that free range eggs come from hens who:

• Have substantial space to move around freely, both indoors and outdoors

• Have lived in systems with low outdoor stocking densities, consistent with the Poultry Code (1,500 birds per hectare).

• Have lived in systems with low indoor stocking densities, lower than that of barn systems.

• Can and actually do go outside on most ordinary days.

• Are not routinely debeaked or force moulted.

Unfortunately, a significant proportion of eggs labelled ‘free range’ do not meet these expectations. Australian Competition and Consumer Commission (‘ACCC’), has brought a number of cases against producers who have either described eggs as free range without meeting free range expectations, or where producers have incorrectly labelled cage eggs as free range.

The new free-range standards do not meet any of the above consumer expectations. Free-range can not be trusted as a label for higher welfare for the hens.

barn laid eggs

They come from hens kept in a cage-free system. Instead, hens are kept within a shed - which is better than a cage, but they do not have access to an outdoor range and still must endure all the other issues that come in the factory farming method. These include, mutilations with no pain relief, over-crowding, artificial lighting, no fresh air, unnatural diets that include antibiotics and medications.

Sustainable Table have put this together to help navigate different labels and what they mean.



Grass-Fed BEEF

Grass-fed beef may still come from cows that have spent some time in a feedlot or eating a grain-based diet, but it must be for less than 60-100 days even though consumer and producer sentiment around this indicates that it is misleading and damaging to grass fed producers.

Organic beef can be sourced from the grass fed beef production chain, however the vast majority of grass fed producers are not certified organic. This is because they may still use chemicals for fertilizer, weed and insect control, and for animal health management.

Grain-fed means cows have been raised for a certain amount of time on a feed-lot. Grains are not a natural food for a cow to eat.

In 2006 a study was done, were researchers compared the fatty acid compositions of three kinds of feeding of cows.  Each group contained 18 Australian cattle.  The first group was fed grains 80 days before slaughter, the second group was fed “by-product feedstuff” for 200 days, and the third group was grass-finished and grass-fed.

  • Group #1: Short Term Grain Feeding (80 days)

  • Group #2: Long Term Feedlot Rations (150-200 days)

  • Group#3: Grass Feeding (Life time)

The results showed the grass-fed cows had more omega-3’s and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA).  Just 80 days of grain feeding was enough to destroy the omega-3 content of the beef.  CLA content plummeted in the same amount of time. It is healthier for the cows, and this is reflected in the flesh, if you so choose to eat it.

Pasture-Raised

Pasture raised means the animal has lived its life outside on pasture and not in sheds. This doesn’t mean having ‘access’ to pasture but actually eating, playing, grazing and often sleeping and birthing outside with access to adequate shelter to be used as required. 

‘Pasture’ is what it means - extensive areas of grass and vegetation fit for grazing.

To be eligible to use the “certified pasture fed” label in Australia, cattle must have had access to graze in pasture for their entire lives and not be confined to feedlots for the purposes of intensive feeding. Organic beef is pasture raised, as is organic pork and chicken, but not always visa-versa.




Links to the welfare standards in food labelling are below:

When choosing to eat meat, for high animal welfare standards in Australia such as explained above, there are producers and suppliers that provide as described above, and you can find directories of these below:

The Sustainable Table

Flavour Crusader

Feather and Bone

***



https://www.ewg.org/meateatersguide/

http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn2351-20year-study-backs-organic-farming.html

http://www.greenpeace.org/eu-unit/press-centre/policy-papers-briefings/environmental-and-healthimpac?mode=send

https://austorganic.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/04/AustOrganicMarketReport2018_spreads_digital.pdf

https://www.goodfood.com.au/recipes/news/think-youre-buying-freerange-grassfed-ethical-meat-look-closer-at-the-label-20170705-gx54ze
https://www.choice.com.au/food-and-drink/meat-fish-and-eggs/meat/articles/buying-ethical-meat

https://www.choice.com.au/food-and-drink/meat-fish-and-eggs/meat/articles/free-range-meat-labels
https://www.voiceless.org.au/unscrambled-hidden-truth-hen-welfare

http://www.pcaspasturefed.com.au

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18641180


SLAUGHTERHOUSES

SLAUGHTERHOUSES

Meat, dairy and egg products, and some entertainment industries such as horse or greyhound racing, involve the slaughtering (killing) of animals, whether directly for human consumption, or as “waste products” of the industry. Most of this killing is carried out at slaughterhouses, also known as abattoirs, which operate primarily for human consumption. Animals deemed unfit or unsuitable for human consumption are killed at similar, but generally much smaller, facilities called knackeries. By-products from slaughterhouses or knackeries that are not for human consumption are processed at facilities called rendering plants; sometimes the rendering plants are located within the same facility.

Slaughterhouses can range from being huge industrial facilities with hundreds of workers, to small sheds with only a handful of employees, or even backyard operations run entirely by the owner of the property. There are roughly 250-300 commercial slaughterhouses in Australia, though many of these are no longer operating. The slaughterhouse workforce in Australia consists of around 25,000 employees. It is a predominantly young workforce with around half of all workers younger than 35.

In 2016, there were 278 licensed slaughterhouses in Britain.

Travel distances are key to stress levels of the animals before slaughter, with the longer an animal travels in a truck, the more stressed it is when it arrives at an abattoir. Food and water can be stopped for time periods before slaughter, when travelling. For example:

Most animals slaughtered for food in Australia have their throats cut open with a knife (referred to as “sticking”) so that they can be bled out. Prior to this, they are typically meant to be unconscious (though as of 2011, 15+ abattoirs in Australia have permission from state governments to slit the throats of fully conscious animals, as part of the religious practices of “halal” and “kosher” slaughter). There are three main methods of ‘stunning’ intended to make animals unconscious before slaughter: captive bolt, electric, and gas chambers.

Captive bolt stunning

Also called “percussion stunning”, this method produces a physical shock to the brain. The captive bolt, if used correctly, causes irreversible damage to the animal’s brain, and can be used on cattle, pigs, sheep and goats as well as horses and camels, although electrical stunning is more common for pigs and sheep. The captive bolt method of stunning is used throughout the world, and due to the minimal running costs is the preferred method in many developing countries.

There are two main varieties of captive bolt gun: penetrating and non-penetrating.

A penetrating captive bolt gun fires a blank cartridge, propelling a short bolt (metal rod) from the barrel through the skull bone and producing concussion by damaging the brain or increasing intracranial pressure, causing bruising of the brain. Some types of penetrating captive bolt guns have a handle and a trigger, while others have a hand-held barrel which, when tapped against the skull of the animal, sets off the cartridge explosion.

A non-penetrating captive bolt gun features a blunt bolt with a mushroom-shaped tip, which strikes the forehead of the animal with great force and immediately retracts, causing concussion and rendering the animal unconscious.

Electrical stunning

Electric stunning renders the animal unconscious by passing an electric current through the animal's brain. It is the usual method of stunning for pigs, sheep, goats, and poultry.

For pigs, sheep and goats, a low voltage alternating electric current is applied by means of two electrodes, which are placed on either side of the brain (or underneath the jaw and on the back of the neck) using tongs.

For poultry, an electrified water bath is used. Birds are shackled upside-down by their feet and dragged through a trough of water that is charged with a low voltage current. Birds that lift their heads (or are smaller than normal) manage to avoid the bath and go on to be painfully killed without stunning.

Because electric stunning does not usually cause damage to the brain, animals will regain consciousness if not quickly killed and bled out.

Gas chambers

Also called “controlled atmosphere stunning” or “controlled atmosphere killing”, this method involves placing animals into a container or chamber which lacks oxygen and contains an asphyxiant gas (one or more of carbon dioxide (CO2), argon or nitrogen), causing the animals to lose consciousness and, if left in the chamber long enough, to die.

The vast majority of pigs killed for food in Australia are stunned in carbon dioxide (CO2) gas chambers. While there are different models of chamber used, the more common variety is roughly 7-10m deep; the gas, being heavier than oxygen, sits below the level of the entrance. Inside this type of chamber, there are 5 or so steel cages known as gondolas. Pigs are forced by use of an electric prodder into the gondola (3 at a time for 5-6 month old “growers”, or 1 sow), which is then lowered into the gas. Hidden camera footage inside these chambers (Corowa slaughterhouse NSW, Big River Pork slaughterhouse SA) shows that the pigs suffer immensely, screaming and thrashing for air and trying desperately to escape as the gas suffocates them. The gondola eventually comes up the other side of the chamber and tips the unconscious pigs out onto a bench where they are shackled before having their throats cut open.

It is becoming increasingly common for poultry slaughterhouses to use gas chambers for stunning and killing, rather than the traditional method of electric stunning.

Australian law dictates that all animals must be stunned so that they are insensible to pain prior to slaughter. However, there are exemptions given to a number of abattoirs (15+ as of 2011) to meet a small demand in Australia for religious slaughter (all kosher and some halal products). 

Halal slaughter

While all commercial chicken abattoirs in Australia attempt to stun chickens prior to slaughter (including halal chicken), some halal killing of sheep, cattle and goats does not involve pre-slaughter stunning.

Halal slaughter of sheep involves the cutting of both the carotid arteries and jugular veins. If they are not completely severed, the animal is then supposed to be stunned.

Cattle are kept in an upright position with the head and body restrained. After their throats are cut, they are stunned with a captive bolt pistol. Compared to sheep, cattle have an extra blood supply to the brain through the back of the neck, so cutting their throat does not lead to unconsciousness as quickly.

Kosher slaughter

Kosher slaughter does not involve stunning. Kosher meat must be slaughtered in a particular way so as to be “fit and proper” for people of the Jewish faith to consume, and must not contain any blood. The animals must be killed by a rabbi specially trained in religious slaughter. A sharp knife is used to cut the oesophagus, the trachea, carotid arteries and jugular veins in one action. Excessive pressure on the blade is forbidden. The animal is raised so blood flows out and this is then covered with dirt. Failure to do any of these acts correctly means the animal is considered unfit to eat. 


Investigations showing cruelty

Export abattoirs require a Department of Agriculture vet to be on site during the slaughter process, but domestic meat abattoirs are only required to employ an internal animal welfare officer. Yet even with an external vet, there were 55 reports of animal welfare breaches at Australia export abattoirs between 2009 and 2011, including many relating to ill, injured, moribund or "DOA" animals at export facilities. The breaches ranged from animals with pink eye and gangrene infections to ingrown horns, broken limbs and cattle in the very late stages of pregnancy, some full term and calving on arrival. Emergency slaughter was often required, yet in many cases it was not clear what action, if any, state authorities took after receiving incident reports from Department of Agriculture vets. 

The NSW Food Authority recently uncovered animal welfare breaches at all 10 of the state's domestic slaughterhouse.

Despite this, there's still no way of knowing which meat-processing facility your supermarket steak has come from.


Animals Australia campaign director Lyn White says the lack of independent oversight in domestic abattoirs leaves farm animals "incredibly vulnerable". Animals Australia, together with the RSPCA, has called for the introduction of CCTV in all domestic abattoirs to increase transparency in an effort to protect both animal welfare and consumer interests.
As the repetitive undercover investigations reveal cruelty going unchecked, it seems that Government regulation and audits are failing.

Just some common examples seen in the under-cover exposes are:

Animals not being stunned correctly and still being conscious when having body parts removed

Workers being violent with the animals - kicking, punching or over prodding them with electrical stunners

Workers swearing at the animals or laughing at them while physically hurting them

Below are again, just some recorded investigations of slaughterhouses.

November 23rd 2016: Explosive video evidence from inside a major Victorian slaughterhouse uncovers the shocking and systemic abuse of animals born into the meat and dairy industries. Hours of harrowing footage reveal a system failure so bad, it has every caring Australian asking the question: how could this happen here?

Over 1,000 videos were sent to authorities cataloging abuses to cows, week-old calves, goats and sheep. But one pig suffered worst of all. She was still conscious after being struck four times with a captive bolt gun. She thrashed and moaned, desperate for help or mercy, as workers stood over her swearing, and even laughing at her pain. Then they shot her. Twice. Her ordeal at the hands of these slaughterhouse workers lasted longer than six agonising minutes.

May 8th 2014: In a world-first, video has been released from inside the gas chambers of a NSW slaughterhouse owned by Rivalea — the 'biggest' and the 'best' in the business. This covert vision, supplied anonymously to 'Aussie Farms' and provided to NSW police, has given the public its first glimpse into what the industry regards as the most 'humane' slaughter method. But is it? Footage shows pigs screaming and thrashing as they gasp for air inside the abattoir's gas chambers. One lame pig, unable to enter the gas chamber, is dragged, kicked, and shocked repeatedly with an electric prod.


March 21st 2013: Turkeys are being sadistically abused at an Ingham's slaughterhouse in NSW. An investigation by Animal Liberation, aired on ABC's Lateline, has revealed workers repeatedly kicking, punching, and kneeing birds, as well as slamming them into walls and stomping on them — apparently for fun. One worker even tried to rip the heads off live birds.

Feb 1st 2013: Lateline has revealed the latest in a string of shocking Australian slaughterhouse cruelty cases; this time involving the abuse of week-old bobby calves at an Echuca slaughterhouse.

Jan 18th 2013: Cruelty charges have been laid against the Sydney slaughterhouse and one of its ex-employees, following an RSPCA investigation sparked by the footage taken by Animal Liberation NSW. Hawkesbury Valley Meat Processors had been inspected four times in the year before the footage was taken. What happened when the inspectors left? 

May 18th 2012: In response to shocking footage filmed by Animal Liberation NSW at a Sydney slaughterhouse, the NSW Food Authority has conducted a review of all domestic slaughterhousesin NSW that kill sheep, cattle, goats and pigs. What they found was even more shocking: Animal welfare breaches were uncovered at every domestic slaughterhouse in NSW, including "incompetency of slaughtering staff" and ineffective stunning — meaning some animals may have been fully conscious at slaughter. Sadly the NSW government's announced package to address these problems does not include installation of CCTV, but rather relies largely on training and more self-regulation.

Nov 24th 2011: Victorian authorities closed down a slaughterhouse in Gippsland after Animals Australia provided footage of animal welfare breaches inside the facility. In just 90 minutes enough evidence of cruelty was captured of the final moments of a group of young pigs to have this slaughterhouse's license withdrawn.

For nearly six months, I worked undercover inside Quality Pork Processors (QPP) QPP kills about 1,300 pigs every hour operating under the high-speed pilot program. That’s more than 21 pigs per minute, making QPP one of the fastest pig-killing facilities in the nation.

QPP has widely been considered a model for the USDA’s nationwide expansion of the pilot program through NSIS, but when no one thought the public or USDA was watching, behind the slaughterhouse’s closed doors, I documented pig carcasses covered in feces and abscesses being processed for human consumption, and workers – under intense pressure to keep up with high line speeds – beating, dragging, and electrically prodding pigs to make them move faster.”

A veteran USDA meat inspector from Texas describes what he has seen: "Cattle dragged and choked... knocking 'em four, five, ten times. Every now and then when they're stunned they come back to life, and they're up there agonizing. They're supposed to be re-stunned but sometimes they aren't and they'll go through the skinning process alive. I've worked in four large [slaughterhouses] and a bunch of small ones. They're all the same. If people were to see this, they'd probably feel really bad about it. But in a packing house everybody gets so used to it that it doesn't mean anything."


This is not to say that all workers, or all slaughterhouses have these obscenities occurring however, the findings are consistent enough to confirm there are animal cruelty cases systemically through the slaughterhouse industry and, at the least, it begs the need for CCTV.

There are around 75 abattoirs that slaughter pigs in Australia. Eighty five per cent of pigs are slaughtered at seven export abattoirs across Australia.

““We do 4,000-4,500 pigs a week, whereas the super-abattoirs can do 6,000 a day.”

Australia’s largest poultry processing establishment kills and processes 33 million birds per year, or 630,000 birds a week.

Fast slaughter times and internal policing increases the risk of animal cruelty but also, importantly, food safety.

In Australia, all certified organic meat has been slaughtered in a certified slaughterhouse facility as per the Australian Certified Organic Standard requirements. ACO has 21 slaughterhouses accredited as organic. One of their priorities is to make sure that the organically raised animals they slaughter and their dead bodies are not contaminated with biological or chemical agents from animals who were not raised organically. While killing is done in the same manner, there are some small tweaks outlined for organic slaughtering such as:

6.2.3. Social groups shall be maintained and not mixed at the holding pens to point of slaughter.

6.2.6. Where stock are to be held longer than 24 hours from time of beginning of transport to kill, certified organic feed and potable quality drinking water shall be made available to all stock. In such instances, clean and dry areas shall be made available for stock to lie down. At no time shall certified stock have access to uncertified feeds or pasture.

6.2.9. Processing runs of certified stock shall take place first run of the morning. Where this is not possible, full clean-down procedures shall take place from unloading ramps through the entire abattoir/processing operation to ensure no cross-contamination. This shall include steam pressure or equivalent wash down of internal facility contact surfaces where sanitisers, bleaches and other cleaning agents have been used.

6.2.10. Animals shall be separated from sight of beasts being slaughtered.

6.2.11. For bovines, animals shall be rendered unconscious prior to shackling and hoisting.

Free-range is slaughtered at same slaughterhouse as industrial raised meat.

https://www.aussiefarms.org.au/kb/abattoirs/50-stunning-killing

A Slaughterhouse Nightmare: Psychological Harm Suffered by Slaughterhouse Employees and the Possibility of Redress through Legal Reform

Blood, Sweat and Fear: Workers' Rights in U.S. Meat and Poultry Plants
Slaughterhouse: The Shocking Story of Greed, Neglect, and Inhumane Treatment Inside the U.S. Meat Industry, Gail Eisnitz

https://animalsaustralia.org/features/not-so-humane-slaughter/

https://www.animalsaustralia.org/issues/slaughterhouse-cruelty.php

https://www.abc.net.au/news/2016-10-14/tasmanian-abattoir-accused-of-animal-cruelty/7924804

https://www.abc.net.au/local/stories/2012/02/10/3427599.htm

https://www.animalsaustralia.org/features/slaughterhouse-cruelty-history-repeating.php

https://investigations.peta.org/cambodian-slaughterhouse-cows/

https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2018/mar/06/ive-seen-the-hidden-horrors-of-high-speed-slaughterhouses

https://www.viva.org.uk/what-we-do/slaughter/slaughter-farmed-animals-uk

https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2014/aug/29/slaughterhouse-crossing-line-between-life-meat


MORE TO COME BELOW…

animals in entertainment


animals in experimentation


HEALTH AND A PLANT-BASED DIET