Environment

We eat three times a day every day, for most of our lives and it is one of the most powerful things we can control that will affect the planet we live on — the oceans and rivers, rainforests, wildlife, greenhouse gas emissions, water quality and more. It is why Greenpeace and The United Nations is pushing for us to go plant-based.

 
 

Greenhouse gases

01

ANIMAL AGRICULTURE IS RESPONSIBLE FOR 18 PERCENT OF GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS, MORE THAN THE COMBINED EXHAUST FROM ALL TRANSPORTATION. +

"Livestock's Long Shadow: environmental issues and options". Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Rome 2006


02

TRANSPORTATION EXHAUST IS RESPONSIBLE FOR 13% OF ALL GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS. +

Greenhouse gas emissions from this sector primarily involve fossil fuels burned for road, rail, air, and marine transportation.

"Livestock's Long Shadow: environmental issues and options". Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Rome 2006

Environmental Protection Agency. "Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions Data".





06

"Livestock' Long Shadow: environmental issues and options". FAO. Rome. 2006

"Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States". U.S. Energy Information Administration. March 31, 2011







12

EVEN WITHOUT FOSSIL FUELS, WE WILL EXCEED OUR 565 GIGATONNES CO2E LIMIT BY 2030, ALL FROM RAISING ANIMALS. +

Oppenlander, Richard A. Food Choice and Sustainability: Why Buying Local, Eating Less Meat, and Taking Baby Steps Won’t Work. . Minneapolis, MN : Langdon Street, 2013. Print.

Source: calculation is based on http://www.worldwatch.org/node/6294 analyses that 51% of GHG are attributed to animal ag.



 

Water



03


04

GROWING FEED CROPS FOR LIVESTOCK CONSUMES 56% OF WATER IN THE US. +

Jacobson, Michael F. “Six Arguments For a Greener Diet: How a More Plant-based Diet Could Save Your Health and the Environment. Chapter 4: More and Cleaner Water”. Washington, DC: Center for Science in the Public Interest, 2006.


05

CALIFORNIANS USE 1500 GALLONS OF WATER PER PERSON PER DAY. CLOSE TO HALF IS ASSOCIATED WITH MEAT AND DAIRY PRODUCTS. +

Fulton, Julian, et al. "California's Water Footprint". Pacific Institute. December 2012


06

2,500 GALLONS OF WATER ARE NEEDED TO PRODUCE 1 POUND OF BEEF. +

(NOTE. The amount of water used to produce 1lb. of beef vary greatly from 442 - 8000 gallons. We choose to use in the film the widely cited conservative number of 2500 gallons per pound of US beef from Dr. George Borgstrom, Chairman of Food Science and Human Nutrition Dept of College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Michigan State University, "Impacts on Demand for and Quality of land and Water." )

Robbins, John. "2,500 gallons all wet?" Earth Save: Healthy People Healthy Planet.

Pimentel, David, et al. "Water Resources: Agricultural and Environmental Issues". BioScience (2004) 54 (10): 909-918.

"Water Content of Things: Data Table 19". The World's Water 2008-2009

Beckett, J. L, Oltjen, J. W "Estimation of the Water Requirement for Beef Production in the United States". Journal of Animal Science. 1993. 71:818-826 "Water". Environmental Working Group.

"Water footprint of crop and animal products: a comparison". Water Footprint Network.

Oppenlander, Richard A. Food Choice and Sustainability: Why Buying Local, Eating Less Meat, and Taking Baby Steps Won’t Work. Minneapolis, MN: Langdon Street, 2013. Print


07

477 GALLONS OF WATER ARE REQUIRED TO PRODUCE 1LB. OF EGGS; ALMOST 900 GALLONS OF WATER ARE NEEDED FOR 1LB. OF CHEESE. +

"Water". Environmental Working Group.

"Food Facts: How Much Water Does it Take to Produce...?" Water Education Foundation.



09

5% OF WATER CONSUMED IN THE US IS BY PRIVATE HOMES. 55% OF WATER CONSUMED IN THE US IS FOR ANIMAL AGRICULTURE. +

Jacobson, Michael F. “Six Arguments For a Greener Diet: How a More Plant-based Diet Could Save Your Health and the Environment. Chapter 4: More and Cleaner Water”. Washington, DC: Center for Science in the Public Interest, 2006.



 

Land



03

ANIMAL AGRICULTURE IS THE LEADING CAUSE OF SPECIES EXTINCTION, OCEAN DEAD ZONES, WATER POLLUTION, AND HABITAT DESTRUCTION. +

Animal agriculture contributes to species extinction in many ways. In addition to the monumental habitat destruction caused by clearing forests and converting land to grow feed crops and for animal grazing, predators and "competition" species are frequently targeted and hunted because of a perceived threat to livestock profits. The widespread use of pesticides, herbicides and chemical fertilizers used in the production of feed crops often interferes with the reproductive systems of animals and poison waterways. The overexploitation of wild species through commercial fishing, bushmeat trade as well as animal agriculture’s impact on climate change, all contribute to global depletion of species and resources.

"Biodiversity and Food Choice: A Clarification". comfortablyunaware: Global Depletion and Food Choice Responsibility. June 9, 2012

"Freshwater Depletion: Realities of Choice". comfortablyunaware: Global Depletion and Food Choice Responsibility. November 25, 2014

"What is a dead zone?" National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

"What Causes Ocean 'Dead Zones'?" Scientific American

"Nutrient Pollution: The Problem". Environmental Protection Agency

"Livestock's Long Shadow". Food and Agriculture Organization of The United Nations. 2006

Hogan, C Michael. "Causes of Extinction". The Encyclopedia of Earth. June 13, 2014

"The Habitable Planet. Unit 9: Biodiversity Decline// Section 7: Habitat Loss: Causes and Consequences". Annenberg Learner

"Impact of habitat loss on species". WWF Global

"How Eating Meat Hurts Wildlife and the Planet". Take Extinction Off Your Plate: a project of the Center for Biological Diversity.

Machovina, Brian, et al. "Biodiversity conservation: The key is reducing meat consumption". Science of the Total Environment 536 (2015) 419-431

"Risk Management Evaluation for Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations". U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2004Hance, Jeremy. "How humans are driving the sixth mass extinction". The Guardian. 20 October 2015

Zielinski, Sarah. "Ocean Dead Zones Are Getting Worse Globally Due to Climate Change". Smithsonian.com. November 10, 2014

Tilman, David, et al. "Agricultural sustainability and intensive production practices". Nature 418, 671-677. August 2002

Wilcove, David S, et al. "Quantifying Threats to Imperiled Species in the United States". BioScience. Vol. 48, No. 8 (Aug., 1998) pp. 607-615




06

2-5 ACRES OF LAND ARE USED PER COW. +

McBride, William D., Mathews Jr., Kenneth. "The Diverse Structure and Organization of U.S. Beef Cow-Calf Farms". USDA: Economic Research Service. Number 73. March 2011

Oppenlander, Richard A. Food Choice and Sustainability: Why Buying Local, Eating Less Meat, and Taking Baby Steps Won’t Work.

Minneapolis, MN: Langdon Street, 2013. Print.


07

NEARLY HALF OF THE CONTIGUOUS US IS DEVOTED TO ANIMAL AGRICULTURE. +

The US lower 48 states represents 1.9 billion acres. Of that 1.9 billion acres: 778 million acres of private land are used for livestock grazing (forest grazing, pasture grazing, and crop grazing), 345 million acres for feed crops, 230 million acres of public land are used for grazing livestock.

Glaser, Christine, et al. "Costs and Consequences: The Real Price of Livestock Grazing on America's Public Lands". For the Center for Biological Diversity. January 2015

Nickerson, Cynthia, et al. "Major Uses of Land in the United States, 2007". USDA: Economic Research Service. Number 89. December 2011

"Rearing cattle produces more greenhouse gases than driving cars, UN report warns". UN News Centre. 29 November 2006



 

Waste

01

EVERY MINUTE, 7 MILLION POUNDS OF EXCREMENT ARE PRODUCED BY ANIMALS RAISED FOR FOOD IN THE US. +

This doesn’t include the animals raised outside of USDA jurisdiction or in backyards, or the billions of fish raised in aquaculture settings in the US. [v]

"Animal Manure Management". USDA: Natural Resources Conservation Service. RCA Issue Bief #7. December 1995

"Agricultural Waste Management Field Handbook". USDA: Natural Resources Conservation Service. Part 651

"Agricultural Waste Characteristics". Agricultural Waste Management Field Handbook. USDA. Chapter 4


02

A FARM WITH 2,500 DAIRY COWS PRODUCES THE SAME AMOUNT OF WASTE AS A CITY OF 411,000 PEOPLE. +

"Risk Assessment Evaluation for Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations".Environmental Protection Agency. 2004


03

130 TIMES MORE ANIMAL WASTE THAN HUMAN WASTE IS PRODUCED IN THE US – 1.4 BILLION TONS FROM THE MEAT INDUSTRY ANNUALLY. 5 TONS OF ANIMAL WASTE IS PRODUCED PER PERSON IN THE US.+

"Animal Agriculture: Waste Management Practices". United States General Accounting Office. July 1999


04

IN THE U.S. LIVESTOCK PRODUCE 116,000 LBS OF WASTE PER SECOND: +

Dairy Cows, 120 lbs. of waste per day x 9.32 million dairy cows

Cows, 63 lbs. of waste per day x 83.68 million cows

Calves, 30 lbs. of waste per day x 34.3 million calves

Pigs, 14 lbs. of waste per day x 74 million pigs

Sheep and Goats, 5 lbs. of waste per day x 7.84 million sheep and goats

Turkeys, .87 lbs. of waster per day x 77 million turkeys

Broiler Chickens, .50 lbs. of waste per day x 1.74 billion broiler chickens

Laying Hens, .25 lbs. of waster per day x 350.7 million laying hens

*pigs are raised twice per year, (a total of 148.3 million per year) so on any given day in the United States there are about 74 million pigs.

*turkeys are raised three times per year (a total of 233 million per year) so on any given day in the United States there are 77 million turkeys.

*broiler chickens are raised 5 times per year, (a total of 8.69 billion per year) so any given day there are1.74 billion broiler chickens.

Dairy Cows produce (120 lbs. x 9.32 m.) = 1.1184 billion lbs.

Cows produce (63 lbs. x 83.68 m.) = 5.27184 billion lbs.

Calves produce (30 lbs. x 34.3 m.) = 1.029 billion lbs.

Pigs produce (14 lbs. x 74.0 m.) = 1.036 billion lbs.

Sheep and Goats produce (5 lbs. x 7.84 m.) = 39.2 million lbs.

Turkeys produce (.87 lbs. x 77.0 m.) = 66.99 million lbs.

Broiler Chickens produce (.5 x 1.74 b.) = 870 million lbs.

Laying Hens produce (.25 x 350.7 m.) = 87.675 million lbs.

*Total manure produced in one day is 9.519105 billion lbs.

*Total manure produced in one year is 3.475 trillion lbs.

*This is the equivalent of over 6.611 million lbs. per minute. (This does not include any animal raised outside of USDA Jurisdiction, backyards or fish raised for aquaculture)


05

ANIMALS PRODUCE ENOUGH WASTE TO COVER SF, NYC, TOKYO, ETC. +

based off 1lb of waste per 1sqft at 1.4 billion tons.

*Total manure produced in one year is 3.475 trillion lbs. (From above calculation.)

US Livestock produce 335 million tons of “dry matter” per year.


 

Oceans



03

90-100 MILLION TONS OF FISH ARE PULLED FROM OUR OCEANS EACH YEAR. +

"World Review of Fisheries and Aquaculture: Part 1". United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization



05

FOR EVERY 1 POUND OF FISH CAUGHT, UP TO 5 POUNDS OF UNINTENDED MARINE SPECIES ARE CAUGHT AND DISCARDED AS BY-KILL. +

"Discard and bycatch in Shrimp trawl fisheries". FAO: Fisheries and Aquaculture Department






 

Rainforest

01

ANIMAL AGRICULTURE IS RESPONSIBLE FOR UP TO 91% OF AMAZON DESTRUCTION. +

Margulis, Sergio. "Causes of Deforestation of the Brazilian Amazon". World Bank Working Paper No. 22. 2003 Tabuchi, Hiroko, Rigny, Claire & White, Jeremy. "Amazon Deforestation, Once Tames, Comes Roaring Back". New York Times. February 2017

Bellantonio, Marisa, et al. "The Ultimate Mystery Meat: Exposing the Secrets Behind Burger King and Global Meat Production". Mighty Earth

Oppenlander, Richard A. Food Choice and Sustainability: Why Buying Local, Eating Less Meat, and Taking Baby Steps Won’t Work. . Minneapolis, MN : Langdon Street, 2013. Print.



03



05

26 MILLION RAINFOREST ACRES (10.8M HECTARES) HAVE BEEN CLEARED FOR PALM OIL PRODUCTION. +

"Indonesia: Palm Oil Expansion Unaffected by Forest Moratorium". USDA: Foreign Agriculture Service. June 2013




08

FURTHER READING ON SISTER DOROTHY STANG. +

"About Sister Dorothy Stang". Sister of Notre Dame de Namur


 

Wildlife

01

USDA PREDATOR KILLING OF WILD ANIMALS TO PROTECT LIVESTOCK. +

"The USDA's War on Wildlife". Predator Defense



03

MORE WILD HORSES AND BURROS IN GOVERNMENT HOLDING FACILITIES THAN ARE FREE ON THE RANGE. +

"Program Data: On Range Population Estimates as of March 1, 2016". Bureau of Land Management


04

TEN THOUSAND YEARS AGO, 99% OF BIOMASS (I.E. ZOOMASS) WAS WILD ANIMALS. TODAY, HUMANS AND THE ANIMALS THAT WE RAISE AS FOOD MAKE UP 98% OF THE ZOOMASS. +

Ede, Sharon. "The Bomb is Still Ticking...". Post growth: From bigger towards better. November 2010

Smil, Vaclav. "Harvesting the Biosphere: The Human Impact".

Population and Development Review 37 (4): 613-636 (December 2011)


 

Humanity



03

WORLD POPULATION IN 1812: 1 BILLION; 1912: 1.5 BILLION; 2012: 7 BILLION. +

"Human Numbers Through Time". Nova

"Current World Population". Worldometers


04

70 BILLION FARMED ANIMALS ARE REARED ANNUALLY WORLDWIDE. MORE THAN 6 MILLION ANIMALS ARE KILLED FOR FOOD EVERY HOUR. +

"Factory Farms". A Well Fed World

"Strategic Plan 2013-2017: For Kinder, Fairer Farming Worldwide". Compassion in World Farming

"Animals Slaughtered". Animals Deserve Absolute Protection Today and Tomorrow

Oppenlander, Richard A.Food Choices and Sustainability: Why Buying Local, Eating Less Meat, and Taking Baby Steps Won’t Work. Minneapolis, MN : Langdon Street, 2013. Print.


05

THROUGHOUT THE WORLD, HUMANS DRINK 5.2 BILLION GALLONS OF WATER AND EAT 21 BILLION POUNDS OF FOOD EACH DAY. +

There are 7.5011 billion people on earth

Based on rough averages of water at .5-1 gallon (.75 gallons) x 7.5011 billion = 5.626 billion gallons of water and 7,605 metric tons of food produced per minute = 24.143 billion pounds of food per day.


06

WORLDWIDE, COWS DRINK 45 BILLION GALLONS OF WATER AND EAT 135 BILLION POUNDS OF FOOD EACH DAY. +

Based on rough averages of 30 gallons of water & 100 lbs. of food per day x

of cows 1.468 billion cows





10

15X MORE PROTEIN ON ANY GIVEN AREA OF LAND WITH PLANTS, RATHER THAN COWS. +

Soybeans can be produced at 52. 5 bushels per acre x 60 lbs. per bushel = 3,150 dry soybeans per acre

Soybeans protein content (dry) is 163.44 grams per pound

The protein content per acre of soybeans is 163.44 g x 3,150 lb. = 514,836 g per acre

Beef can be produced at 205 pounds per acre

Beef protein content (raw) is 95.34 grams per pound

The protein content per acre of beef is 95.34 g x 205 lb. = 19,544.7 g per acre




13


14

1.5 ACRES CAN PRODUCE 37,000 POUNDS OF PLANT-BASED FOOD. 1.5 ACRES CAN PRODUCE 375 POUNDS OF BEEF. +

Oppenlander, Richard A. Food Choice and Sustainability: Why Buying Local, Eating Less Meat, and Taking Baby Steps Won’t Work. Minneapolis, MN : Langdon Street, 2013. Print.

https://www.barnesandnoble.com/w/food-choice-and-sustainability-richard-a-oppenlander/1117327379?ean=9781626524354

"Direct Seeded Vegetable Crop Chart". Johnny's Selected Seeds

Schwab, Denise, et al. "Grass-fed and Organic Beef: Production Costs and Breakeven Market Prices, 2008-2009". Iowa State University 2012





18

FURTHER READING ON ANIMAL ENTERPRISE TERRORISM ACT (AETA)+

"S. 3880 (109th): Animal Enterprise Terrorism Act". govtrack



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